click here

Jumat, 28 November 2008

Village-based governance

This article was published in the Daily Kompas, Central Java, December 30, 2006
By the facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

Government official site in Sragen regency,, on 21 October 2006, revealed that for decentralization to the village in 2007, Sragen implement village-based government. There will be three civil servants in each village. Thus, for the 208 villages in Sragen, required 624 employees who are ready to be assigned in the village. Personnel civil servants (PNS) consists of one person agricultural extension and two programs that focus on the empowerment of rural communities.

Duty is a direct extension of farmers in the village to build the ecosystem, agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery and the ideal. Two other people have to really recognize the potential and conditions in their respective villages to be developed in accordance with the needs of the village.

To implement this program, the intranet network must have been to every village to report the flow control and can function well every day. Supported by at least two computer units in each village is expected that the village can actually known.

Village-based government is a trustee of Government Regulation No. 72 Year 2005 on the village. PP 72/2005 is born as a follow-up rising from the Law number 8 of 2005 on Changes to Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Government.

Although there are changes in laws, the substance of the village does not change.

Substance first, diversity. This is adapted to the origin of social and cultural conditions of the local community. This means that the pattern of governance and rural development must respect the value system that applies to the local community without forgetting the value of the system together in the life of nationalism and state.

Second, participation. Active participation of villagers is required in Providing governance and development process. Third, genuine autonomy. This means that the authority to set administration in managing the community and rights based on the origin and value of the local social culture.

Fourth, democratization. Governance and implementation of rural development must accommodate the aspirations of the community and favorable diartikulasi BPD through the village and social institutions as partners the village government.

Fifth, the empowerment of the community. Governance and implementation of rural development aimed to improve the welfare and prosperity of the people through policies and programs of activities in accordance with the priority needs of the community.

In a sociological perspective, the characteristics of the village is relatively simple. It is this simplicity that distinguishes the community with the city. The city has a community activity that is more complex.

Simplicity villagers to make them more active participation in government activities and development. Their participation in paying taxes and building earth (UN), mutual cooperation, and pilkades far higher than the city.

For that, government programs based on the village not to fall into the "kotanisasi" village. Villages with agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishery as a breath of life must be kept in its sustainability. In other words, "the village modernization yes, but not kotanisasi village!"


Ironically, many current land rice fields to the interests of the dialihfungsikan factories and housing. Instead the function of this land instead evoke the work of farmers into factory workers. The number of farmers are increasingly reduced. As a result, Runtuhlah superiority of the Indonesian nation exporter of rice into rice importer nation.

There are four kinds of approaches that need to be taken to implement the government based in the village. First, the approach is oriented in the resolution of the problem. Resolving the problem is the duty of the government's most often overlooked. The farmers are often left to solve their own problems.

Increase in fertilizer prices, scarcity of fertilizers, and the low selling price of unhulled rice is a classic problem faced by farmers. However, the government response was very slow.

In fact, I rarely even create government policies that harm farmers, for example, the rice import policy. Recognized or not, this policy is causing the selling price of unhulled rice to be low, only enough to recover the cost of production.

Second, the approach is oriented on the improvement of human resources villages. According to Rogers and Shoemaker, one of the obstacles in efforts to empower human resources is a village mentality Lack of thinking for the future. This means that the ability of farmers to have very limited future. This resulted in the farmers have difficulties to improve the welfare of their life. Empowerment programs of human resources need to be directed to the village "to re-install" this kind of mentality.

Third, the approach is oriented at strengthening the role of village economy. Mangku Purnomo (2004), said that the social and economic institutions can be a container village farmers to mengaspirasikan economic motives. Institutional this course will have meaning in the strategic empowerment of society.

Fourth, the approach is oriented on increasing the knowledge and skills of rural communities. In this case, the government can build a library and the village hall in the village of exercise work. Real synergy between the library and training center is expected to make the village "get information".

Fifth, the approach is oriented on improving the performance of government agencies. It is important to remember the current dependence of farmers against the government is still quite high. The performance of government institutions that will open opportunities for farmers to improve the welfare of their life.

Facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro librarian at the Library Sragen regency, Central Java

Karimun Soon Have New Library Building

Utrecht - Regent H. Karimun Nasrun Basirun, S. Sos, M.Si. said that next year will be built Public Library building. This is a speech delivered at the opening ceremony Socialization Law No. 43 Year 2007 on Library hall at the Great Mosque Karimun (19/11).

Further, the district is still young and enegik elucidate on the importance of the quality of the library in order pencerdasan life of the nation as mandated in penbukaan Constitution 45. In a speech without a text that was to remind the speaker that society Karimun not easy to respond to the speaker and rarely want to ask the question and answer session.

Karimun is one district in Riau Islands Province, which was established by Law No. 53 of 1999. District bordering with Singapore is comprised of 245 islands with 3 large islands, namely Karimun island, gourd, and toothpick. Only 73 inhabited islands and the rest is not populated group of islands.

Socialization of the committee, said that the romance of this event attended by 167 participants, consisting of community leaders, and Camat lurahnya, principals and managers of the school library Elementary, Middle School, High School, the library manager, the management of mosques, and so forth. Similar activities will be implemented in the 2009 budget that will come. Meanwhile, the head of the Office of Library and Archive, Indra said that the participants who attended approximately 90% of the invited. Completing what was delivered by bupatinya, the former camat Indra said that the development office of Library and Archive, Karimun Regency planned in a strategic location and easy reach of the community. Indra also said that a head of the Office of Library had a career challenges in the very different time served as Camat. Library Karimun, which this year became the library's best level of Riau Islands Province (concern) this year has visited many mayarakat.

Socialization Law No. 43 Year 2007 on the Library to bring sources Nurhadi Imam, the head of the Media Law and National Library had received a response from all participants. It is possible the effects of philippic bupatinya less frequently respond to the speaker or for other activities, but that should be closed 11:00 hours until 11:30 was molor even during the lunch are still many who want to ask more. RRI to a local priest said that the socialization of Law No. 43 Year 2007 on Library does not just explain the legal aspects but also aspects of libraries because people are still many who have not yet know what the library.

Appreciation should be given to the Regent Karimun, which strongly supports the development and the development of libraries in the region. When socialization present more before the full participants, according to the new information came from a task office in Jakarta evening. The great number of participants present and active in the socialization can be used as evidence that the people of Karimun want to promote the library. Head of Library believe the future of the library is quite promising and will exert every effort for that. Indra expects assistance from the National Library in the form of Library Nowhere immediately slide terealisir to existing services.

No surprises in Aceh: Lessons from N. Ireland

David Rose , Jakarta

As someone who spent all of my childhood and most of my adult life living in Northern Ireland during the secessionist conflict that we call the "Troubles", the recently released International Crisis Group report -- Pre-Election Anxieties in Aceh -- was frankly, not surprising.

In fact, were the authors to go back to their report and replace "Aceh" with "Northern Ireland" it would accurately reflect the issues that undermined confidence in the period immediately after the signing of our peace accord in 1998. Yet ten years later the peace process goes on, our new democratic institutions whilst not yet permanent, feel secure and significantly progress is finally being made to confront the many social issues arising from the conflict. The key question is what lessons have been learnt?

Before discussing lessons learnt from the Northern Ireland peace process, I would like to make clear that this writer works on the principal of "Shared Experience." In workshops, I appraise the Northern Ireland experience as a means to illustrating the dynamics at play during our peace process.

Whilst I believe that common understanding exists amongst those who have experienced conflict, I do not believe it is possible for an outsider to direct parties to successful outcomes. Rather establishing common ground through the sharing of experiences allows peace builders an opportunity to explore another situation and adapt the lessons learnt to build a strategic approach appropriate to their circumstance. In this way, the parties to the 2005 Memorandum of Understanding may be able to adapt and devise strategies to overcome their own problems.

So what are those key lessons from Northern Ireland?

The first is to realize that the peace process never ends; it merely throws up new and different problems. When I look back on the period running up to the 1998 Belfast Agreement, I am embarrassed at my naivety. At that time I believed an accord would in itself be the solution to our situation. In truth, the day the deal was signed, a whole new set of challenges emerged:

o The political and militant opposition to the deal emerged and constantly sought to undermine it. I attended more funerals in the period after the accord than I did before. All were people killed through internal feuding.

o Many former militants had no work skills to make a living in the post-conflict economy. They turned to crime and as a result seriously undermined the population's sense of well being.

o The challenge of implementation of what was written in the deal became increasingly difficult as a serious lack of trust continued to exist between all parties.

o People's expectations of a quick turn around in their economic fortunes were soon proved to be unrealistically high and as a result they became increasingly disillusioned.

All these problems still exist to a greater or lesser extent, what we have learnt is that they are not reasons to bring the whole process to a halt.

The second is never lose faith in the process. Even in the euphoria of 1998, I never seriously believed that the militant groups would ever cease to exist in a paramilitary form.

A decade later, the two principal groups, the Provisional Irish Republican Army and the Ulster Volunteer Force have both voluntarily ceased to exist as "military" entities. This change happened because it became politically unsustainable for both groups to exist.

As the causes of conflict were addressed, the two organizations were faced with a choice -- continue and potentially mutate into mafia-type gangs or depart the stage on their own terms. Both chose the latter as it was the will of the majority of their members. It took over a decade from the ceasefires to reach this point and for most of that time many thought the ill-discipline and criminal activity of some former militants would destroy the whole process. In the end, staying the course delivered because it was the process that created the dynamic.

The third lesson is always being honest. Every conflict is a mass of human stories, each one as legitimate as the other. Peace builders must always seek to empathize with those who having survived years of conflict now have to overcome the challenges of peace, particularly:

o The traumatized victims,

o The families mourning the loss of loved ones,

o The newly unemployed combatants,

o The political and community leaders struggling to lead people through the most painful of transformations, and

o Those who feel they have lost.

All have legitimate issues to overcome and none should be dismissed. In truth, there are no ready answers to these issues. In Northern Ireland, we are coming to terms with the fact that whilst offer as much support as is possible, we cannot solve every problem for every person and this writer believes the best any society can do is admit that truth They won't love you for it, but people do respect honesty.

The fourth lesson is to recognize that "Peace" is an ill-defined situation that will never truly be reached. For a decade, I believed that Northern Ireland might eventually reach a point where all our problems were resolved and the peace process could be complete. Eventually, I realized that this would never happen because even the most successful societies have problems. And those of us who work to build "Peace" should remember that.

There will always be crime and criminals. There will always be political division, and there will always be economic winners and losers. A healthy society recognizes these truths and seeks to manage them through well-supported civil policing, robust democratic institutions, and adequate support for those at the bottom of the economic ladder. In Northern Ireland, we have made significant progress towards the healthy outcome and thus can claim to have reached a level of "Peace".

Though the parties to the 2005 MOU should recognize the need to find strategies to address the problems highlighted in the ICG report, no one should be surprised at how slow and difficult progress has been. As former prisoner and UVF leader Gusty Spence told the small group of prisoners who would go on to initiate the "Northern Ireland Peace Strategy" within the Loyalist constituency, a peace process is "a marathon not a sprint."

The writer is a professional consultant, trainer and advisor specializing conflict transformation, who has worked on National Democratic Institute programs across the world, most notably in West Bank/Gaza and Aceh.


Senin, 24 November 2008

Corruption the biggest threat to Indonesian development

Paul Wolfowitz, Jakarta

What the Asian crisis showed -- nowhere more clearly than in Indonesia -- is that corruption is often is at the very root of why governments don't work.

Today, one of the biggest threats to development in many countries -- including this one -- is corruption. It weakens the systems, it distorts the market, and it therefore encourages non-productive skills.

In the end, governments and citizens will pay a price, in lower incomes, lower investment, and more volatile economic swings.

This is a lesson that Indonesia learned the hard way. After the progress of the last 20 years, corruption contributed significantly to the economic collapse of the late 1990s. It now looms as a major obstacle to achieving the development successes this country is capable of -- and which the Indonesian people deserve.

Corruption not only undermines the ability of governments to function properly, it also stifles private sector growth.

We hear it from investors -- both domestic and foreign -- who worry that where corruption is rampant, contracts are unenforceable, competition is skewed and the cost of doing business is stifling. When investors see that, they take their money elsewhere.

To give an idea: In Indonesia, 56 percent of surveyed firms say they are willing to pay more taxes -- in fact half are willing to pay up to 5 percent of their revenues -- if corruption could be eliminated.

Corruption thrives in countries where private investors face cumbersome procedures and excessive regulations. When extra licenses are needed to start a business, when extra signatures are required to import goods, it creates opportunities for abuse of authority and for corruption.

Our estimates show that the time to start a business has already fallen from 151 days to below 80 days, and we are hopeful that the government will reach its target. That would be a wonderful success story.

Perhaps the most important challenge lies in the enforcement of contracts. On this front, Indonesia ranks amongst the lowest in the world -- 145 out of 155. In fact, investors' lack of trust in the legal system is one of the problems that have brought investment levels down to half of those in your fast-growing neighbors.

Indonesia has already begun to confront some of these difficult challenges. President Yudhoyono has launched a tough anti-corruption drive that is holding public officials accountable across all levels of government.

New institutions like the Anti-Corruption Commission, the Anti-Corruption Court, the Judicial Commission and Timtastipikor are up and running and producing results. And institutions like the Supreme Audit Commission and the Attorney General's Office are showing newfound strength.

Even more important are the measures taken to reduce opportunities and incentives for corruption, led by an impressive economic team.

Weknow that when governments don't work, the development assistance we provide to governments doesn't work either. It means that children are denied the education they need. Mothers are denied the health care they deserve and countries are denied the institutions needed to deliver real results.

Fighting corruption is a long-term commitment. We cannot expect results overnight.

What we can expect is steady progress towards building transparent and accountable institutions. That is why fighting corruption requires a long-term strategy that systematically and progressively attacks the problem. And that is why any strategy for solving a problem requires the commitment and participation of governments, citizens and the private sector.

There's been a lot of attention recently to a number of actions we've taken to suspend lending in existing projects where corruption concerns have emerged.

The World Bank Group's country strategy for Indonesia is one that particularly emphasizes governance. In partnership with the Indonesian government, we will commit $900 million per year to strengthening governance, with the goal of improving service delivery in education, health and other essential services and enhancing the investment climate.

In countries like Indonesia where the government is committed to fighting corruption, our resources anbd expertise can make a difference.

Enforcement alone will not cure corruption. How much we do, and how much progress we make, depends on the desire of both governments and civil society to create the right setting for sound, strong, sustainable development.

The greatest changes come when the ideas people carry in their heads change. In many countries, people are not as tolerant of corruption as they were in the past.

The good news is that in Indonesia, the social and economic achievements of the last forty years have created a demand for government that works. The people of Indonesia recognize that with transparent and accountable governance, they stand a better chance of reducing corruption...of improving their quality of life...and securing a better future for their children.

The article is condensed from an address made by the World Bank President at a discussion on democracy, governance and development held Tuesday night in conjunction with Tempo media group's 35th anniversary.

Laws against torture needed

Ricky Gunawan , Jakarta

On Jan. 22, 2007, Hartoyo was at home with his partner, Bobby (not his real name), when two men forcibly entered his house and proceeded to vandalize his property before assaulting the two men. Hartoyo and Bobby were then dragged outside to a place where a crowd of around 15 people had gathered. They were subjected to beatings and verbal abuse. Hartoyo was ordered by the attackers to immediately vacate the boarding house. The attackers then informed the local police authorities.

The two victims were taken by four police officers to the Banda Raya Police Station where they were made to strip down to their underwear and were viciously beaten and verbally abused by the officers. The police officers later sexually abused Hartoyo and then forced his partner to perform oral sex on him. The two were then dragged to the police station courtyard where officers sprayed them with ice-cold water.

The police also forced Bobby to urinate on Hartoyo's head. Hartoyo and his partner were then taken to a police lockup, where they were held until morning.

This ruthless, inhuman and barbaric torture has been a cavernous trauma for Hartoyo. Furthermore, this abysmal event scars Indonesia's face of humanity.

More than a year later, in October 2008, the case was finally tried by the Banda Aceh District Court. However, as the court regarded the torture merely as a minor offense, there was only one judge hearing the case.

During the trial, the judge did not examine the acts of torture but rather focused on Hartoyo's sexual orientation. The judge advised him to turn away from sin, giving the impression that it was permissible for the perpetrators to beat and assault the victims because of their different sexual orientation.

In about 30 minutes, the judge had made his decision: The four perpetrators were sentenced to three months' imprisonment with six months of probation and a fine of Rp 1,000.

Given that the case was tried as a minor offense, the verdict was final and binding -- leaving no hope for the victim to appeal.

Hartoyo's case is only one example of how the Indonesian legal apparatus treats this kind of torture. The court obviously treats the "common enemies of all mankind and all nations" nicely and inadequately by ruling they only committed a minor offense.

From this case, we can also draw the conclusion that torture creates double standards within the state institutions, especially the police and judiciary. How is it possible that such severe violence took place in this very modern day and the perpetrators received a very light punishment?

This case demonstrates how the absence of laws on torture resulted in no justice for the victims of torture. The absence of laws on torture denies victims and their families any avenue for justice and redress. The right to redress and compensation for grievances wreaked by the State is a fundamental principle of the Convention against Torture, to which Indonesia is a party. Indonesia, which does not provide a legal remedy for such unspeakable acts, is also violating its international obligation imposed under the Convention.

Reports from many national and international human rights groups show there have never been investigations into cases of torture and other ill-treatment, and where victims have been reluctant to submit a complaint to the relevant authorities. Even if the perpetrators were convicted, they were not convicted under the laws on torture. Definitely, there is a problem in dealing with torture in Indonesia.

The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture has recommended that for a country such as Indonesia, there is a crucial need for an independent national authority, such as a national commission or ombudsman with investigatory and/or prosecutorial powers, which should be immediately established to receive and to investigate complaints on torture cases.

Complaints about torture should be dealt with without further delay and should also be investigated by an independent authority with no connection to that which is investigating or prosecuting the case against the alleged victim. Wherever a person has a plausible complaint of having been tortured by the police or military officers, it too entails the notion of an effective remedy.

Without establishing a proper, impartial and effective accountability mechanism to investigate torture cases as well as enacting domestic laws on torture, there will be more cases like Hartoyo's in the near future. Indonesia's tortured commitment, apparently, is dragging the country into a tortured nation.

The writer is the Program Director of the Community Legal Aid Institute. He can be reached at


Can 38 parties create an effective governance?

Boni Hargens , Jakarta

Why does the government tend to be ineffective in implementing public policy? That is the question of De Figueiredo, Jr in his 2002 paper titled, "Electoral Competition, Political Uncertainty, and Policy Insulation". He argues that political uncertainty is the root of evil. Uncertainty denotes a complex political process that ends in a deadlock.

For Figueiredo, uncertainty is not a taken-for-granted state but implicated by complex electoral competition among different political forces.

If the above question is converted into how to implement an effective policy, we then automatically will discuss the quality of government as the output of electoral competition. To come straight to the point, the true question is whether or not a 38-party electoral competition in the upcoming 2009 elections can create an effective government.

A set of coalition strategies built by political parties is a beginning. But there are no strong variables that will guarantee that such a maximum coalition can build an effective presidential government because the boundaries are blurred and this is simply a "wild political maneuver" among political parties.

This happens for various reasons, such as (a) an ideologically dissimilar coalition or dissimilar political targets, (b) an over-exploitation of the figurative or popularity aspect when recruiting candidates for leaders and (c) a tendency to sweep the quality of leadership out of the electoral realm.

To some extent, polls published by independent researchers in term of leadership quality are jailed by particular disputes around who is the most popular to be a president. Popularity stands is not a significant correlation with quality. Some may be highly popular and qualified at the same time, but popularity per se does not imply leadership quality.

Talking about change then, is to talk about the quality of leadership. If we examine all current surveys in depth, we can see there is no specific survey that addresses public perception of the degree of leadership among every presidential candidate who has appeared on the surface.

Behind this dynamic game, we can synthesize that democracy is being insulated by pragmatic forces. On the one hand, to a certain point a political party is unable to self-reform and on the other hand, civil forces are giving less and less concern to this banal political process. Hence is it contingent to expect 2009 elections that are valuable?

Substantially, the 2009 elections will be very valuable and will become a critical turning point in this country's democratic history if the process is the priority, not the results per se or the contests in themselves -- at least this can be the idea for a political party in understanding coalition. One nodal point stressed along this line is that the elections will transcend to struggles for upgrading the quality of democracy.

Barack Obama in the United States ran ahead of John S. McCain in the polls when Obama mapped a feasible change agenda -- not being stuck in past romanticism as McCain was with his heroic moments in the Vietnam War.

The same fate will befall the big established parties in our country in the context that no parties will be accepted among the population if they only stand on a historical foundation. The horizon must include performances on how and what parties will do and should do for the greatest number of people. The main intention is what parties will do to combat political uncertainty.

In specifics, the intentions of politics are to fight for the survival of its citizens, to defend the poor's right-to-live, to set the oppressed free and to let the uneducated dream of schooling -- not only because education is an instrument for vertical social mobilization but also as education is a right of the citizens.

In terms of talking about rights, the Liberals and the Republicans have disputed this for years. For Liberals, the foundation of a state's existence is to fulfill individual interests for each of its citizens, but the Republicans are convinced that the state must act in its own interests, not only as a tool for fulfilling individual needs. Habermas effects to end such creative tension through what he calls "deliberative democracy". The core principle is how to maximize popular participation in the political process.

This precisely is our fundamental issue -- how to maximize popular participation in the state when democracy is being insulated by pragmatic forces. Political parties as formal power-seeking organizations and as a bridge between society and the political system have been put into question -- reflect on the increase of non-voters during recent local elections -- for their oligarchical domination and absolute pragmatism where their quality is subordinated to money. It is predicted that the 2009 elections will be hung up by such pragmatical forces.

The question then is how to set our democratic imagination free from the tunnel's darkness? The change -- which will be the nodal point of our expected struggle in the upcoming 2009 elections -- will have to meet some of the following conditions: (a) politics will be led by a new progressive and mainstream politic (new political party?) that enters the political realm with a feasible and transformative agenda of change, (b) the party sells its agenda or program at the grassroots level and no longer exists because of its popularity and (c) finally voters have sufficient information and knowledge about the candidates or contestant parties so that people can come to the ballot with a good conscience and genuine good will.

The writer is a lecturer at Political Science Department, University of Indonesia and Director of Merdeka Center for Strategic Study. He can be reached at


Coping with financial crisis via online social networks

Matthew Fraser and Soumitra Dutta , Singapore

In the fallout of the global financial meltdown, it's difficult to think of a positive side to the economic crisis. But it actually might be good news for Web 2.0 social networking.

It would reasonable to predict that social networking sites like LinkedIn, Plaxo, Ning -- and even Facebook -- will see their membership ranks soar in coming weeks and months as widespread insecurity drives people to connect with others to boost their social capital.

There can be no doubt that, as people worry about their financial security and career situation, many will feel compelled to plug into online social networks. Anxious about their institutional status inside vertical hierarchies, people will turn to the social dynamics of horizontal networks.

The empirical data already appears to validate this hypothesis. In the spring when petrol prices were spiking, Neilson released findings that suggested people were networking online to "cope" with hard economic times.

LinkedIn meanwhile has been boasting soaring membership numbers, reaching 28 million worldwide. Nobody will be surprised to learn that many of LinkedIn's new sign-ups are coming from the financial sector, whose membership has doubled. It may be hard to feel sorry for bonus-bloated investment bankers, but many are frantically dusting off their CVs and rushing to online social networks in the hope of repositioning their careers.

A new LinkedIn survey has revealed that 42 percent of the network's members feel their job security has been impacted by the economic crisis, while 13 percent say it's too soon to tell. In other words, more than half of LinkedIn's worldwide membership is scared.

Some have dismissed LinkedIn as "Facebook for losers" -- in other words, for opportunists who are looking only out for themselves in the job market. This attitude underlines two fundamental tensions that we analyze in some detail in Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom. The first is the tension between rational and non-rational motivations to belong to social groups. The second is between "close" and "weak" social ties.

Motivations for joining social networking sites are varied and complex. At risk of oversimplifying, we can classify motivations into two broad categories: rational and non-rational. Professionals who join sites like LinkedIn are primarily motivated by rational calculations related to their career interests. Most teenagers who collect "friends" on MySpace, on the other hand, are not looking to improve their career prospects. Their social interaction is motivated primarily by a non-rational instinct to forge social bonds based on common values, beliefs, passions and so forth.

Most of us like to feel connected to others through close-knit ties or shared interests and passions. Yet ironically, we frequently depend on people with whom we maintain only "weak" ties -- especially when we are looking for a job. The strength-of-weak-ties theory was famously elaborated by American sociologist Mark Granovetter. He defined "weak ties" as social relationships characterized by infrequent contact, an absence of emotional closeness, and no history of reciprocal favors. In professional parlance, you might say people in your "extended network".

Granovetter found that we rely on "weak tie" connections much more often than we think. Most intelligent job-seekers don't turn to close friends or family for jobs, unless they are expecting to benefit from the advantages of cronyism or nepotism. Most turn to their extended network. And most business networks are based on relatively "weak tie" associations.

Which brings us back to the economic downturn. When out-of-work investment bankers scramble to sign up to LinkedIn, they are making a rational calculation. They're not looking for friends; they are seeking to leverage the strength of weak ties.

What happens, however, when people start invading Facebook where "friend" values are embedded in the site's social etiquette? It's easy to see how a tension between non-rational and rational motivations could create conflict on Facebook. And yet Facebook is cluttered with self-promoters, career artists, and marketing entrepreneurs. Can these people really be considered "friends"? And just how many Facebook "friends" can we reasonably have anyway?

Anthropologists tell us that it's impossible to maintain stable social relationships with more than 150 people. This is widely known as "Dunbar's Number", named after British anthropologist Robin Dunbar, who argued that the necessary ritual of "social grooming" breaks down in groups whose membership exceeds roughly 150.

If we apply Dunbar's figure to all social networking sites, any "friend" list that exceeds 150 is not credible -- and pushes social networking into the zone rational calculation. Maintaining a professional network of more than 150 connections on LinkedIn might be plausible, but it would appear to be humanly impossible to maintain social relations with more than 150 different people.

And yet many Facebook profiles feature "friend" lists that not only surpass that figure, but double, triple, and quadruple it. Some Facebook "friend" lists count in the thousands. Which leads to the question: is the virtual world exempt from basic laws of socio-anthropology?

While we ponder that question, it's a safe bet that the economic downturn will boost sign-ups for sites like LinkedIn and Facebook. And that this membership drive will further blur the line between rational instincts to connect socially with like-minded people and rational calculations to build social networks for self-interested reasons.

Matthew Fraser is a Senior Research Fellow and Soumitra Dutta is Roland Berger Chaired Professor of Business and Technology at INSEAD. Their forthcoming book, Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Change Your Life, Work and World, is published by Wiley.

Source :

Minggu, 16 November 2008

If Lord Care Library!

by Romi Febriyanto Saputro

Read Kompas Central Java on 6 May 2006 entitled "Regional Library lament" make the author feel concerned. This is considering the fate of the world's libraries in this country do not predicate a number of environment that disandangnya. Warehouse science, the world's window, it education, and ocean knowledge is at once sweet, sweet talk crap to laud the world's libraries. Why? Some praise was never blossom in the natural reality. It is only in the imaginary nature called with hopes, dreams, ideals, and obsession.
Look at our education! The world has a hobby curriculum change was not giving adequate library space to the interests of children read this. Library dipojokkan in the "rest room", "narrow space", while "space behind." Sometimes not even given the same room once in a world that, according to the official state able to improve the nation.
In some elementary school libraries really become the "warehouse of knowledge." Perhaps because so love with the "knowledge warehouse," teachers in the school forgot to open the door to the library. Day, a week ..., .. a month, ... .. and may be the year the library locked left the meeting. Really become a warehouse of knowledge, the "tersucikan" from the touch of human hands of children, I once ... ... not a science building.
Then, ... whether conditions in the high school library better? In fact, three-quarter money. Although the "little king" in junior high and high school is always after the four-wheel drive "rise throne," the fate library unremitting increase in dignity. Library left "live shrink, I would die." King always toss a small song "no funds" discussed when to decorate the library with a row of books of quality. He is quite happy with the decoration books package that really terpaketkan have been evacuated because of the expiration.
He seems never to forget "1001" range of charges from students with various labels for the sake of education. BOS funds that now when I meet with the library will soon turn sigapnya face with Buuussssss ... .... Bablassss angineee.
Now let us continue to travel higher education. Universities in Indonesia can not manage to have in the library. According to the Chairman of the FPPTI Abdul Rahman Soleh ideally each university to allocate funds as much as 5% of the household budget for the library.
However, based on the survey, only five universities that have been allocated a fund of 5% for the library, the remaining funds allocated under 5%. In fact, 40% from universities to allocate funds under 2%. The results of the survey also revealed that books in the library most universities have expired. (Media Indonesia, 24 September 2003)
Portrait opaque world of the library in the land of water The portrait is a reflection of the ruler of this nation. Rulers who prefer the skin than the content. No need to wonder if the building PKK (the wife of prominent dinahkodai by the district / city) is far more "wow" from the public library building. Do not be surprised if the cost of the procurement office, a car far more than the cost of collection for the new library.
Yes, my Lord! Why all the elements of authorities that no one seems to care about the library? Library seems to have become a monster frightening the Council for the country. Ask at the library guard, now pack of governors, regents, mayors, representatives of the people, rector, deans and lecturers take the time to predict the moment the library? What he is a respectable set foot in the building of this knowledge?
If not, please be advised if they consider the library as "another world". Library in the dictionary of life they may be just a "warehouse of books", "consoles", "space dust", "unemployment arena" and other paintings completely black.
This all-black paintings lead to forget that they need the library building, budget, human resources, new books, information technology, and facilities adequate to house a learning community. This forgetfulness is certainly a thorn for our work in the library world. Then I had to appear anecdotes, the budget will suffer itching eyes when met with the library budget. Finally eye library budget is dicoret.
Passivity of the authorities to make the library the library's position "on the subject under the subject". It is difficult for libraries to a community while satisfying demands for political will never satisfy the ruler of the library. How might a local library to increase public interest in reading if only boosted the amount of zero percent from the coma about budget?
Would the beauty of the authorities if we have a high awareness of the library as the ruler of the Khilafah Banu Abasiyah (750 - 1258 M). It is a golden period of science, marked by a high government attention to the library.
Authorities at that time to paint the library with gold ink. One of the famous library and the largest is the Baitul Hikmah. Librarian at the time it is a prestigious position. No one can work in the library, except have a tradition of reading, writing, and scholarly strong. Al Khawarizmi Math scientists is one example of librarian-born scientist who at that time.

Read a book on the Boat

By Hisham Ali Mohamad *

Very unique breakthrough made Batola government, a district in South Kalimantan. The area is located at the corner of Borneo are rarely called names and people stop in our ears. Utilize the potential of natural owned, the government Batola recently released antarjemput school programs by using the boat. Barito River in the mengular throughout the area and during this intravenously into the life of local people then become the main shipping route''school''the boat.

This program is devoted to those who lost or force is never the opportunity to try school. Term year schools pursue the package. A motor boat made of wood from Kalimantan is provided. In the space above for the special class. Meanwhile, on the floor below the library is available with various books and equipped with computer facilities and internet. In the outdoor terrace, we can use the boat to rest just a foot while detangle enjoy the scenery along the river.

This positive and the new nuances can be read from this program is the government of carefulness in work Batola potential in utilizing natural resources as a means of recreation and education are far from boring. Maybe virtually unimaginable how a set of children to school every day and enjoy the various reading in the library at the top of the boat that runs through the Barito River flow. Truly an atmosphere of joy and sensation apart. Moreover, for the people of the mountains that very rarely come into contact with the river environment.

During this activity is often conducted in the reading room that is not moving. Only in the hospitality perhaps someone will read the body shake while the rate of the vehicle. And, the boat is one of the multiplied that offers comfort for passengers. There was a calm and relaxing the catch when we catch a boat. Gemeriak river and the whistling wind will be a natural music that can make passengers get comfortable and calm atmosphere and stimulate imagination.

We should not always mengamini suggestion Bobbi De Porter or Mike Hernacki read to suggest that the upright position and minimal movement. Hempasan smooth flow of river rock the boat had to accompany the body of the readers towards books that keterbuaian favor. If you borrow a term Yulius Muhammad, traveling by boat is able to offer an audio alternative that allows more focus to be hearing more tranquil. Moreover, the book form easily portable and can precipitate brought memories of intellectual interaction that is not readily fission.

Disyukuri country really deserve this cluster, surrounded islands with beautiful liukan thousand above the river. Certainly if this kind of thing used optimally, he will become a tourist attraction, which promises. We can only imagine this is an archipelago in areas such as Venezia in Italy with a tour of the famous river. In the City of Love is spoiled travelers with Gandola (cox typical Venezia), which is ready to accompany passengers through the crystal clear rivers that cut across the city. Similarly, in Egypt, Nile River with the exposition of his beliefs.

Once again, the library at the top of the boat, although there may be in many other places, but it presents the views of the rare. Especially in Indonesia with the dynamics of the world literasi crisp and poor creatures. No one seems unduly if one observer perbukuan never mengibaratkan library as a''space''tersunyi. And, activities not read ubahnya a hideout most quiet when someone willingly dialogue with the universe of ideas. Miss seriuh and any contents of a book and segaduh any uproar in the mind of the person, he will remain in the atmosphere quiet tersudut that includes books and libraries.

Of course, not all areas can provide the library on the water, as in Batola. However, in areas of the archipelago, the little river that has enough to be representative tourist attraction. Say this kind of literary tour. Sightseeing while reading books on the boat. In the frame of education, this effort can be classified as creative media in the occupied wujudnya and recreational.

At least, if a number of large cities that flow into the river as Batola duplicate the program, will be born some benefit directly and indirectly. Among other form of alternative treat patterns and learning new media and far from monoton. In the perspective of the environment, the government (office of environmental governance and city), I will always strive to maintain cleanliness and keasrian river. So that the local river into a clean environment is not polluted, the residents happy, and tourists are coming future.

Diminatinya start in the middle of travel literature genre of books by the market at this time, a phenomenon which presented the government of Batola is very inspiring and creation. In tilikan Historically, many rover in the archipelago, which enshrine travel and interest in nature through their writing in the book travel. Prabu Jaya Pakuan (Park) Script writing Bujangga Manik between the other towards the Prabu keterpukauan about the elegance Cisokan River in West Java.

Sure, the panorama perbukuan Batola immediately remind my rhythm on the field who had written titled Hasan Aspahani Boat Book. Poetry is a special license to Sitok Srengenge it sounds, among others:

The lake house, a quiet, perahuku asleep / ditimang tiny waves advanced menembang / perahuku and I think, see the moon / fear he asked,''you sober-wine, is not it?''/ Towards the morning, there is light from the basic danaumu / I ask, why the sun rises from there? / There is a boat emerged from the fog-cave is full of books / I suspect you to send them into a ...(*)

*) Hisham Ali Mohamad, of the University of Trunojoyo, Madura
Source: Jawa Pos, 16 November 2008

Business Islamic motivation

Book Title: Reaching the tip-tip Mustajabah

Author: Imam Munawwir

Publisher: Science Surabaya Bina

Mold: I, July 2008

Thickness: 328 pages

Themes of books on psychology always YOUR business interests to read. Sometimes Headlines tempt, although it evacuated normally. Sometimes, the title of the book after reading standards, but very sleepy. Book market growing motivation to encourage more authors to enliven constellation book themes are.

Book tip-tip Reaching the Mustajabah try tempt appear in appearance. Published in hard cover with color covers the eye catching book is expected by the author or the issuer can directly siphon attention of readers. The content dibingkai with the economy and the psychology of Islam, the book works of the Muhammadiyah Jember this can be one of reference for anyone who wants to pioneer and entrepreneur is. Napas-napas Islamic guidelines on how to become an entrepreneur should be in the works. Work hard, persevere, and not surrender abstinence, and tawakal top results will be achieved later.

Besides as a lecturer, author of the book is also of the business is trying to transfer their business knowledge from this experience. Through the principles tawasuth and tawazun (balance) is expected to be reached between the sustainability visions and work, and also between ideals and reality. Human opportunity given by God to utilizing the otaknya as possible to produce works that will provide great benefits to mankind in the world. However, the large potential that will not be there without tergali willingness and hard work. So the brain to become the source of planners, while the character as a source implementers.

Indonesia is an example of a failed state in the nature of entrepreneurship to build it. Really, as the country's rich natural resources, Indonesia remains a poor country. Actually, not only natural resources, human resources potential of the country is also very large.

Indonesia's poor Why? Is the government failed to lead his people toward prosperity? Most easy, the point that the government failed to create employment. Every individual should not depend on there or not the employment provided by the government. Even if every individual is able to think and behave independently, and would be able to develop self-potential, poverty will never happen.

Poverty is happening in this country due to a poor way of thinking. Namely accept what is, does not have a plan, not able to manage natural resources properly, even even spend the wealth of available natural (hlm. 6).

Islam as a religion that aims to bring mercy to all natural condemn hard mentality was poor. Every Muslim must be able to develop a spirit of entrepreneurship. Why? At least three study offered the priest. First, human diserahi mandated by God to be the inheritors of the earth (QS Al Baqarah: 30). As the holder of the mandate, must brave man responsible for all the earth. What is the condition of this earth, rewind, destroyed, or is prosperous depends on the people through all that dikuasainya.

Second, as a manifestation of gratitude favor. Often, fortunately only a dictum favor without the act. In fact favor is to thank all the potential that was used by God to all human accordance with His command (sharfu'n ni'mati ila tho'ati).

And third, intent. Plans are a strong source of motivation. Work must be independent diniati as worship, as done by previous prophets. With the intention of the strong and straight will be born this is a strong motivation.

Three points is a critical core of this book. As a popular reading, this book can be considered similar weight and academic books. Still, it does not reduce the wealth of inspiring. In the last chapter of the readers will get a relaxing oasis, which displays the author debriefing with the community about the practice of entrepreneurship. Examples of concrete in the debriefing that can facilitate the readers imagine how actually to build a mentality of entrepreneurship.

Finally, there are many factors that encourage someone to buy or read a book. And the physical appearance of the hit title can be a concept. However, the author also often factors into consideration. This book seeks to appear memesona, with a heavy style of language but still readily digested.

A very beautiful inspiration from this book will be more complete if the readers know who Munawwir profile Priest, the author. Unfortunately, writing about''the author''is not listed in this book. (*)

*) Tofan Mahdi, journalists Jawa Pos
Source, Jawa Pos, 16 November 2008

Fall State Night 1001

Book Title: Second Last-Second Saddam

Author: Rommy Fibri and Ahmad Taufik

Publisher: Center for Data Analysis and Business, Jakarta

Mold: I, 2008

Bold: xii + 191 pages

This is the book of photographs of a bloody war most - at the same time, including the attention of people in the vault of heaven - on the horizon in the new millennium. Two journalists MBM Tempo, Rommy Fibri and Ahmad Taufik hunt segepok events and the fall of the Saddam Hussain regime and the dissolved lantaknya land diinvasi Iraq after the United States and sekutunya. Both journalists reportase make it wet, which detailed events in the treated vessel pet and baby bonding events diudar with strong bertopang historical perspective.

He basahnya, as readers sometimes see with their own eyes the head of the events told in this book. Reportase opened with a statue of Saddam robohnya happenings and dipungkasi procession and the chronology of the execution of Saddam, this book reveal virtually intact portrait of Iraq once the conflict in the social life of the missile sizzle dikoyak it.

War in Iraq, or more precisely penaklukkan Iraq can be said that as a victory absurditas bring down the favorite on human dignity. With the absurd reason, up to now has not proven that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction, U.S. troops jumawa precipitate military power to gag Saddam over tergoyahkan a decade of almost 2.5. Authoritarian regime that stands in the heart of the Arab bewildered, but not the orderly didekap. State thousand one night this seemed immersed in the internal conflict facing hadapkan-Syiah and Sunni groups to lift the arms!

The most lyrical moments, when Rommy Fibri told the fall of the Iraqi disimbolisasi with robohnya Saddam Hussein statue in the crossroad Firdaws, Baghdad, 9 April 2003. When it merangsek U.S. troops to Baghdad from all directions. Afterwards the U.S. troops have controlled the city, precisely in Firdaws Square, the heart of Baghdad. Dozens of mujahidin (militia), the last defense of the Republic of the Garda, have been off weapons, sign the surrender.

American soldiers entered Baghdad as heroes. Population-mengelu brought elukannya breathe freedom. Saddam statue in the middle of the city dirobohkan want, but empty hands clearly not afford. Tonight, only to topple Saddam statue, U.S. soldiers should hand down. With a rope tied to the neck and withdrawn with armored vehicles coated steel personnel carrier (APC), the statue was felled. Ironic!

And, with a sad, Rommy - Indonesian journalist who first entered Iraq in 2003 - wrote: I do not know how I'm feeling at that time, because I believe the''honeymoon''is aged only temporarily. Soon, residents of Baghdad will be aware what it means''occupied''United States, although this time they feel the middle''freed from Saddam''(hlm. 7).

Anxiety that has proved recently. In fact, until now America still stand and park planning team in Iraq until 2011. Plan a trigger tens of thousands of Baghdad residents - most of the ulama supporting Muqtada Sadr - berdemo (18/10/2008) request the United States hengkang from Iraq.

In Muslim countries such as Indonesia, Saddam prominent as the icon of resistance against the West, wabil particular the United States. However, two experienced journalists covering the conflict in the region this menajamkan not want to forget the views of the whole figure of a Saddam, including the superseded the less tapped. So, Rommy Fibri to go to Iraq to North touch Halabja. Here's where, monuments keberingasan Saddam regime can be witnessed. During the power, Saddam regime quell Kurdish people using chemical weapons such as napalm bomb. This is because the regime of Saddam Baath Party was desperate against the gerilyawan the Kurdish militant.

After some investigation, it militansi Kurdish tribe that is not separated from the forging of nature that is hard. Understandably, the land that they diami range extends from the Zagros Mountains, Taurus, Pontus, to the Amanus. -Continue to pursue, be pursued by the political authorities in Baghdad, the Kurdish nomaden grow into a strong and able to survive in difficult areas (hlm. 97-98). Just imagine, a Kurdish called Shinroe Damarkhan at the age of 70 years can still ride down the mountain dikawani 20s sheep tailed the day with only eat leaves. From the position always be pursued, pursue, now Kurdish tribes menapak to shoot when the power of Iraq Jalal Talabani elected as Iraqi president in early 2005.

Reportase this is done by collecting Rommy chip for the chip from the fact the primary source, although not forget the ordinary citizens are selective. Consequently, we can get the report and a rich perspective of life. And, this is also when he made a visit to An Najaf, Kufa and Karbala - a location that always reminds people of Syiah proposition bloody tragedy 1300 years ago. Syiah the digencet soundly in the time Saddam, now appears as one of the main power in Iraqi politics.

Meanwhile, Ahmad Taufik mengudar Iraq menggelarpemilu the middle - that determines the political process of Iraq at this time. The From this, can be seen that the citizens of Iraq quite enthusiastic to distribute political rights, proved in the general election, the first post-Saddam this, 72 percent of residents following the polling. And, counter-torn Iraqi political parties to switch to the Serious Syiah under the influence of theologian kharismatik, Ayatullah Ali al-Sistani. I pitched Kurdish, Sunni exceeded Party. A very normal repositioning that, when the ruler of the old trees, then the party penerusnya or packing diacuhkan often by the people. In the glasses positive, the election is to contribute to the growth of the tradition will field a new power struggle that some more, routine, and nirkekerasan.

In the end, Saddam Hussein disclosed travel from court to death execution. This is the story of the most grievous of Tikrit relayed a male lion. Saddam is so super since the young, must end his life at the gallows on 30 December 2006. Some versions of states, Saddam pick one's fate with the gallant brave. At least the impression that caught mare television network CNN and the BBC broadcast, died before the gallows, Saddam said,''This is the end of life. I initiated as partisan, because death is not menakutkanku''(hlm. 178).

This book will add to our understanding of the piece of the history of Iraq between 2003-2005. However, there are two shortcomings of this book. First, the two journalists is not too heated to strip the impact of war on the life of civilians - they are always the first to be defeated by a political upheaval and war. Indeed, there are two chapters, namely, the attacks''and''and''Victims Testimony from the Hotel Palestine''which recounts the efforts runyamnya civilians, including journalists, who terhimpit in the battlefield. However, two of this chapter is not convincing my terror and respect the impact damage from a war that kill millions of Iraqi civilians.

Second, this book is published 3-5 years after the event or reportase done. Will be very original, if this book was published not too far from the reportase, so that all the facts and analysis expressed does not fall into justification. Rommy Fibri anxiety, for example, when the satirical behavior when Baghdad residents topple Saddam statue (2003) will have more written in the years when it also. However, not the students, because readers with a motley pride in stories that sustain this book. (*)

Moh Samsul Arifin, a member of Book and Film Club SCTV

Source: Jawa Pos, 16 November 2008

Sabtu, 15 November 2008

When Pornography in Indonesia

The facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

TINDAK pornography in the more distressing. In addition to research the AP news agency that Indonesia kingdom of heaven pornography as the number two after Russia, pornography has become attached behaviors society. Research conducted by Center for Legal Studies University of Indonesia Islamic states around 15 percent of 202 respondents teenagers aged 15 - 25 years old have a sexual relationship, as affected by the impressions of pornography through the Internet, VCD, TV and reading pornography. From the research also revealed 93.5 percent have witnessed teenager with porn VCDs simply want to know the reason for 69.6 percent and other reasons only 18.9 percent.

The phenomenon is of course very alarming us all, irrespective of the validity of the research and obyektifitas. According to the National Ensiklopedi Indonesia, in the definition of pornography is now serving the paper, sculptures, pictures, photos, live pictures (movies) or voice recording, which can cause appetite birahi offensive taste and social community. Pornography refers to the original works of Ancient Greek literature that describes the behavior of prostitutes. In the Ancient Greek language, meaning porne prostitutes and graphein means writing.

In English, there is a term other than obscenity nudity. Obscenity refers to anything that is obscene, immoral and scandalous. But the laws against obscenity only in the United States and Great Britain is only valid for field incivility in the sexual assault.

Ancient Greek society, which holds the naturalistis not consider sex or have sex in a frank as something immoral. The female folk like priapus praised the statue as a fertility god. The statue is a head of a bearded man who placed on a pedestal in the middle of the base and there genitals of men.

Public in Ancient Rome, there are paintings on the walls of Pompeii shrine, which describes the ways bersenggama. Paintings of this is evidence of pornography in the history of the Ancient Roman culture.

At that time, famous Ars Amatoria (Art of Love Asmara), the paper writer Ovidus, which consists of three volumes and discuss in detail ways persuade, stimulate appetite and tempt sex (Alex E Rachim, 1997)

Pornography spread to Europe in the mid-century, with low taste, in the form of farce and present material contains a short verse of satire. Is the story of the famous works of Giovanni Boccaccio Decameron, which contains about 100 stories no profanity. The discovery of printing equipment gives the opportunity for the dissemination of books pornografis story.

The stories that contain humor and a love affair written for the purpose of stimulating or entertaining birahi readers. Then in European papers appear first modern values that do not contain literature and aims only to stimulate birahi. What is known from the days in the UK is the book Fanny Hill; or Memoirs of a Woman of pleasure (1749) by John Cleland.

The spread of pornography becomes difficult when then be found photography and motion picture (film). Since World War II, pornography in the form of writing to get competition from the big serving of the overt erotic behavior (obscenity) in visual form.

During recent decades porn industry also grew rapidly in several countries and is estimated to yield 7 billion U.S. dollars a year. Produced industry also include various medicines and tools pemuas sexual relations.

Past be entrenched

According to Yasraf Amir Piliang (1998), the development of community-century global capitalism to-21 are marked by two logic, the logic of the release of appetite (libido) and the logic of speed, both the potential for social bankruptcy.

Global capitalism is no longer simply associated with the expansion of the capital, and territorial market, but now more associated with the expansion of the flow of libido and appetite vibration. Qur'an depict this condition in the Letter of Muhammad (47) paragraph 12, "And those who disbelieve enjoy (the world) and they will eat like animals?"

Our society seems to have been contaminated by way of materialism and hedonism of life, a life that sure is a measure of material and simply looking for pure enjoyment. With disregard morality, morals as a human being of the community and social ethics.

Like it or not must be recognized and Pornoaction pornography has become a culture in our community, as the virus of corruption, collusion and nepotism. Since entering the reform era Indonesia grew pornography developed.

Once the tap is opened freedom of the press, media and porn start developing Ironically get warm welcome from the community. If before the reform era, people are still embarrassed by the smell of pornography, the era of reform in this community is not embarrassed again.

Television screen every day we always met by impressions, the impressions and spirited porn, either in the form of entertainment, music, movies, ads and patron. With reason in accordance with the taste of the community.

Ngebor rocking one of our singers have inspired other singers, so the name was born ngecor rocking, rocking broken-broken, rocking kayang and other branches shake erotic.

What is more alarming again largely from television erotic nuance that have a high enough rating, which means an indication the majority of the people we love impressions of Eroticism. Yet again with the advertising world that we are using the appeal of Eroticism women to sell their products.

Or use words that contain the imagination and tone of erotic speech. But if the ad is not surprising that motorcycle and instant noodles also use charm women section. As if afraid the world of sport behindhand The culture also made by the Eroticism, for example, a sport boxing is always lenggak swing with a beautiful woman dressed in sexy.

In the Qur'an explicitly Allah SWT disallow any behavior that can be approached adultery, including pornography, Pornoaction, prostitution and all forms of variants.

He said in Al-Isra (17), paragraph 32, "And do not approach adultery, adultery is indeed an act of indecency. And a road that bad." From the word of God is clearly prohibit servants from fornication, handle, and interact with things that can cause or drag to intimacy.

Moral message in the Qur'an seems to have been ignored by many people that most (confess) religion of Islam. With various pretext, such as freedom of expression, art and relatifitas difinisi pornography, they dissolve in the act of knowing if indeed heart-cutty adultery.

What is more surprising when there are more Anti-Pornography Bill, which among many interpret this as something that controversial. According to a number of institutions among the countries need not take too much pornography is still not clear limitations, and if so what functions the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia? If state institutions are no longer able to educate and organize the people, it emerged that only people who terdegradasi moral and eventually akhlaknya that will lead to social ruin. (33)

Romi Febriyanto Saputro-facts taken from this site, the Office of Library librarian Sragen Regency
Source : Suara Merdeka, 29 November 2003

Jumat, 14 November 2008

Exempt from the fetters of Education Package Book

By the facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

This article has been published in the Daily Kompas, 11 October 2004

World Bank Sanctions Committee has issued a black list containing the names 10 individuals and 26 companies that are considered to have been doing shady practices and corruption in the implementation of the Project Development of Books and Reading (Book and Reading Development Project / BRDP) in Indonesia worth 53,232,000 U.S. dollars, funded by the The World Bank. With included in the blacklist, the companies that will no longer be eligible to receive a new contract, funded by the World Bank during the specified period, ie 2-15 years. In addition, the World Bank also ask the Indonesian Government to restore the 10 million U.S. dollar loan from the project, which assessed terindikasi is cheating or corruption (Kompas, 30 September 2004).
Despite the news from the truth, the book project procurement package is vulnerable to the threat of practices of corruption, collusion and nepotism (KKN). For, the procurement of books concerning the funding package that is very large in number with the difficulty level is relatively low. In this case, the publisher only makes a few titles, and then reproduce thousands of times according to the order. Viruses are like KKN (sorry) flatus odor that relationship, but it can not be seen wujudnya.
The book is the key to improving the quality of education, but in the world of education is in fact identical to the problems. In addition, the one thing that just disrupt the face of education we are selling books directly by the publisher to the school. Nuance nepotism between the publisher and the school is very thick because as though the school replace the role of bookstores to distribute books. The publisher will usually give a certain commission to the parties for each school textbooks sold.
Practices book package / lessons in the education world we tend not healthy. Model procurement package books / lessons, as happened when this will only memasung authority of teachers. Teachers are forced to use the books and forced package / lessons that have been set by the government, although sometimes not in accordance with the conditions and background of students.
Similarly, sales practices by textbook publishers directly to the school will only burden the students from the families can not afford. Model of books such as this clearly ignores the fact that their own education and feel more viscous business. Plow profits from the land of education.
Practices procurement package books / subjects such as this must be ended immediately. Government procurement projects can replace the books with cash assistance package the purchase of textbooks for students, especially from among the not afford. Students are given the freedom to buy books in bookstores after obtaining advice, feedback, and direction from teachers. Let them buy their own textbooks in accordance with the taste of each. Books that have been purchased by students at the end of the academic year returned to the school to be used by the younger class.
Sales of books directly to the school by the publisher must also prohibited. In this case, the publisher has undermined the dignity of the school as an institution to be education institutions business. Education should be a social experience has metamorfosis with the capitalist spirit. Capitalism is in the end will only burden the parents.

Removal project book package / lessons, both sponsored by the government and publishers of books, in various forms and wujudnya will bring some positive impact. First, restore the authority and dignity of the teachers. Second, develop teaching multi-directional. Third, increase student interest in reading. Read the interests of students will continue during the stagnant dikondisikan students should be guided and feel enough with only one kind of book package / lessons only.
Teaching-learning process for this, recognized or not, tend to be dominated by teaching the same direction. Students only be the object must accept any teacher who submitted, including the type of book that teaching should be used. With the release of students using the textbook teaching different, it will open a space for discussion, dialogue, and communicate. Thus, the process of learning and teaching will be dynamic, open and democratic.
Philosopher Paulo Freire encourage the learning-teaching logics should inspire students with creativity and motivate students to learn how to find the data, analyze the data in the actual meaning.
Teaching a multi-way means to invite students to think and understand the subject matter. Not just hear, receive, and keep in mind. After understand the subject matter, then formed the new knowledge that makes sense. Something that makes sense will be more durable in memory retention of students. Even if it will be easy to forget to remember it again.

Do not forget, read the interests of students will continue during the stagnant dikondisikan students should be guided and feel enough with only one kind of book package / lessons. With books, which vary in one class, students will be pushed to read and compare the various reference. And, if students feel not enough to book lessons in the classroom, they will be covered in the school library to enrich knowledge.
The increasing interest in reading students are expected to stimulate the schools to improve the quality of the school library. The school is expected to be put in the position of the school library where the reverend. Library schools should be centers of learning that pluralitas activities for active learning, cooperation, research, and interpretation. Thus, it is expected that education in the schools will be able to bring the next generation of culture that will give effect to the community.

Library And Meaningful Learning

By the facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

This paper has been published in the Daily Banjarmasin Post, 2 February 2005

Increasing interest in reading people is the main mission of the library trustee according to the founder of this nation in the opening of the 1945 Constitution, which took life of the nation. One of the characteristics that people are smart have read that interest is high enough. Even in the Qur'an is a command to read the first paragraph down. This means that high-low interest read a nation will determine the high and low culture in the nation before other nations in the world.
HAR Tilaar (1999) revealed, read on the fact the process is to have the knowledge. The process has the science is a process that is known to learn more. Learning is the core of education dominated most of the reading activities. Knowledge that is growing very rapidly, no longer can be mastered through the hearing process or the transition from the source of knowledge (teachers) but through various sources of knowledge that can only be known through reading.
One of the methods that support for increased public interest in reading is a method of learning konstruktivisme. According to E Mulyasa (2002), focused approach konstruktivisme not on rationality, but on the understanding. This is the main reason why konstruktivisme can quickly replace the theory of cognitive development as the basic research and practice in education. Attraction of this model konstruktivisme is on simplicity.

The main strategy of konstruktivisme model of learning is meaningful learning, which invites students to think and understand the subject matter, not just hear, receive, and remember. Each element of the subject matter must be processed and interpreted in such a way that makes sense. Something that is not reasonable, it will not stick long in the mind.
This strategy requires both students and teachers have a position as a subject of study. As a subject of study, both charged to the active search for data, information and interpretation of the subject matter. Students accused kritisisme disposed of subject matter, not just mimic, copy and paste the mug given teachers. With this strategy encouraged students and teachers have read that interest is high enough to utilize the school library.
The results obtained with this strategy meaningful learning, will be far better than traditional learning by Paulo Freire called learning how the bank system. How this will not encourage students to enjoy reading. Next recommend philosopher Paulo Freire, the process of learning and teaching logics should inspire students with creativity and motivate students to learn how to find data, menganalisisnya in the actual meaning.
Learn how the bank system will only generate understanding of the subject matter that is instant and not exhaustive. Sometimes some elements of the subject matter is understood that troubled students, but students are forced to accept it with the sap. Model acceptance of the subject matter so, will only lead to the understanding that easily forgotten. As a result, the process of learning takes place in an atmosphere of static, monoton and boring.
Support Library
The strategy is very meaningful learning requires the support of the library as a source of learning. The library is expected to meet the needs of most students learn in order to obtain the optimal results. Borrowing terms from the theory of two factors, Frederick Herzberg, the role of the library is a factor higinis. Work dissatisfied prevent students in search of information and data that are needed. Higinis factors not directly associated with student achievement, but without the provision of adequate school library can disrupt the smooth process of learning and teaching.
The library can be used for teachers and students as a place of learning outside the classroom. Needs students to play active (active learning), interpretation (interpretation), make sense (reasonable), Negotiations (exchange ideas), cooperative (cooperation) and inquiry (menyelediki) can be done in the school library. In the library students can also implement the concept of learning to know (learning to know), learning to do (learning to do), learn of life in togetherness (learning to live together), a self-learning (learning to be) and lifelong learning (long life learning).
During realize this or not, the role of the library as a marginalized in the domain of national education. In Act No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System, not a single article that I pronounced the word library. This of course is a phenomenon that is quite unfortunate. According to UNESCO, education for all (education for all) can be more successful if equipped library.
Relations between the library and education depicted by the Soetarno NS (2003). According to Soetarno, because education is a process of expropriation and the development of science and the school library as a medium, the development of education related to the presence of the library. Consistent progress of science and technology, education also grew, so between education and libraries are like two sides of the same currency value and can not be separated. Both complement each other and fill.
Education Writing
To further bolster the success of students in meaningful learning, education, writing as the subjects need to be segregated. In English writing a term known as the subjects stood apart. With writing as solitary subjects, since students are trained to love writing. This is supported by the data research by Tizard and friends (Suyanto, 2003), namely from 108 students in the elementary grades 2 English who have the ability to write in a book of 24%, 23% of descriptive writing, writing stories, 19%, 11% writing news , 10% of beautiful writing, writing greeting cards at 7%, labelisasi on the image of 3% and writing poetry / drama 2%.
Lessons will be writing to motivate students to enjoy reading. Only with diligent reading, students will have the information and data to support his writings. Lessons to be considered eligible to write a significant interest in stagnation read our community, including students, and students. With the assumption of the theory of X Douglas Mc Gregor, the students who most need to be less avidly read 'forced' to read in the library with the lessons of this writing.

Quo Vadis Materials Procurement Reader?

By the facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

This paper has been published in the Daily Post Solo, 3 February 2007

Procurement of materials libraries are important icons in the library. Procurement of library materials into the mirror not a good library. A good library should be supported by an adequate number of collections both in terms of the diversity of titles and the number of copies.
Procurement of library materials must be oriented on the user's library. Sound library users should be heard more than personal ego management of the library. The synergy between the users and managers of the library will determine the success or not of a material library.
In selecting the materials library, the library should consider the level of topicality, the existence of new ideas, and the depth of the content / discussion of a book. Libraries must select books that can provide enlightenment of life for readers.
The urgency of the procurement of library materials for a library is to maintain the freshness of the material collection library. This is important to maintain and increase interest in reading people.
Swimming like fish, if you have never experienced the addition of water will become cloudy. Similarly, with a library. If you never make a purchase of a new library that will make the user bored with the existing collection.
The more often and more and more libraries in the procurement of materials will create more library users by the disaster. In the library did not update the collection will be abandoned by users.
Description above shows the importance of library materials for a library. Ironically, the reality says another. There are several phenomena that make the procurement of library materials is not healthy.
First, the project mentality. Cause of the project orientation of library materials shift from satisfying the needs of library users to be satisfying the desires of "those projects".
All efforts are taken in order to benefit the most. Shortcut is appropriate. When the start of activities in the brain those projects is how to get discounts as much as possible.
To obtain large discounts are usually those projects will choose books that minimal variations in the maximum copies of the title. One title could reach five to ten copies. In addition, the minimal variations in the publisher. If the book comes from only one publisher, then the benefits will be greater.
Of the project also cause the selection process library materials to be neglected. Quite a lot of public libraries and schools and universities so that only "Mother bongkokan" with the books presented by publishers and book distributors. They are too lazy to prepare thousands of titles from different publishers.
HaI this is a form of pathological bureaucracy that overrides the world's libraries. Model of books that will only lead to "fool the library."
Second, the imbalance between the aspects of sociology and psychology. Procurement of materials libraries should be a good addition to considering aspects of sociology readers also consider the psychological aspects of the readers.
Aspects of sociology readers include the conditions of the family, education, type of job, social status and living readers. While the psychological aspects include the taste of readers and readers age readers. Both these aspects can not be separated, because separate a whole unit (integral).
Elementary school library, for example, the social environment dominated by children aged 7 - 13 years old, according to the aspects of sociology must be supported with library books that support learning in the classroom. For the books that are featured books in science and technology.
However, from the psychological aspects of the procurement of library materials to the school library that contains only basic books of science and technology will be felt flat. Students are already burdened with various serious lessons in the classroom need a little relaxation.
Stages for the relaxation of the need books that they can entertain people. Books about popular fiction, religion, and popular psychology can fill this space serve as the basic sense of the school library. Divers think this role is to stimulate interest and to grow again read the students who have been buried various television spectacle.
The balance of sociology and psychological aspects of this need to be adjusted to the age of the students. For primary schools, libraries, library collections basic recommended by experts is 70 percent fiction and 30 percent of non-fiction. Non-fiction books also cultivated selected books that are designed with a format that is friendly with children.
Third, procurement of the long-winded. Currently, procurement of goods and services are set by government decree No. 80 of 2003, enhanced with the Education Tax 32 2005.
Goals decree is quite good, namely that the procurement of goods and services the government can be implemented effectively and efficiently with the principles of healthy competition, transparent, open, and fair treatment for all parties, so the results can be accountable both in terms of physical, financial, and the benefits for the smoothness of the government work and community service.
However, if applied in the procurement of library materials pose little distortion. Especially if the literature concerning the procurement of materials with a value of more than Rp 50.000.000, 00, which must be implemented with the auction.
Auction procedures are very long-winded, so it takes a long time. Start from the pre / post-qualification, the document pre / post-qualification, pengambalan bidding documents, explanations (aanwijzing), importation documents, to determine the winner of an auction takes at least three months.
Procurement of the long-winded this cause timeliness library materials decreased slightly. Because the title of the libraries organized in the early years, to new users at the end of the fiscal year.
In addition, if in the middle of the year there are new books published, the library experienced difficulties to buy them. This is because the procurement of library materials must be in one activity. Can not be separated, separate follow the latest developments perbukuan world.
As a result, access to library users to enjoy a new book published should be delayed until the next budget year.
To overcome this problem, the government should publish a special regulations on procurement of library materials that can maintain the level of topicality of the libraries without ignoring the financial liability of clean and transparent. So that the language between the library and financial language can be met in one point.

Bill Library Quo Vadis?

By the facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

This paper has been published in the daily Republika, March 13, 2007

Plenary meeting of the House of Representatives building in the DPR / MPR Jakarta, on Tuesday, 23 January 2007, led by Vice Chairman of the House of Representatives, Muhaimin Iskandar approve the bill as a library initiatives proposed in the House of Representatives for the Government to be passed Act (Act).
-Wing faction in the House to convey views of the end of the ratification bill is related. All the faction to approve the bill on the Library is set to become law so that a plenary meeting to run smoothly (Media Indonesia, January 24, 2007)
Library Bill be by the depth of concern about the condition of libraries in the ground water. Indifference to the library occurred in almost all areas of life.
Education has long been our role to leave the library. Learning in schools is left running without adequate support for the library. Libraries are often symbolized as "it education."
Ironically, the world has tens of years without running the national education "heart". As a result, our education work better as a factory certification. The education we have failed to stimulate the growth of learning to read and relish the students.
The effect of regional autonomy for the government to accelerate development in the region, lead to obscure the central and local authorities in the field of libraries.
Commentary by the diversity of the library of local governments - both provincial and disrupt the kabupaten/kota- empowerment efforts in the area of the library. Regional autonomy create the position of the public library more marginalized.
Bill Library, which consists of 25 chapter and 57 articles has a goal to provide a clear legal umbrella for development and the development of libraries in the ground water.
During not regulated by law apart, the existence of the library will only dihukumi with "sunah" studios. Bill Library is expected to make the government more serious build the world's libraries equal to other development sectors.
The outline of this bill have to give answers to various problems around the library. However, after reading the contents, the bill is felt less bite. The content is too flat. Have not touched the root of the problem is fundamental.
The author captures some weaknesses, first, aspects of institution / organization. Bill is only set the normative institutional library. During this institutional aspects of the library is still not clear, is still riding on other legislation.
Bill spiked to more explicitly the need to determine the status echelon for each type of library. Public library provincial shaped body (echelon II A), a public library district / city shaped office (echelon III A), a public library district shaped UPTD (echelon IVA), the village library and school bereselon IV B. With these rules library will be more attention by the local government ..
Second, the budget. Bill is only set the budget allocation for school libraries and universities. For the second type of library is defined as 5% of the budget the school / college.
Bill is sure to set the budget allocation for the library provinces, districts, subdistricts and villages. So that libraries can do a lot of areas, the budget for the library area also need to set at least 5% of the budget.
Third, human resources. Article 37 states that the library staff consists of labor and non-librarian librarian associated with the library, documentation, and information.
Again, the bill is sure to touch the heart of a problem. Currently the problem is that local governments do not have the good intention to open a librarian for the formation of public library districts, subdistricts, villages, and schools.
In each of CPNS, only a handful of district / city governments to open the formation of a librarian. It is the only public library for the district / city, while for the school library to this day "has not been heard." School library is still a "business casual" of a language teacher who already have a lot of the burden in their work.
To that end, this bill must emphasize that the district / city governments are obliged to take all the energy librarian for the library owned by local governments. Besides the need to set the composition of energy and non-librarian librarian as much as 70: 30 percent. Currently, the number of librarian is still quite rare, and even many libraries that do not have a special energy librarian.
Fourth, the collection. Currently, the number of library collections in the ground water average is not comparable with the mission to increase public interest in reading. Public library district / city with a population of 700,000's 900,000 people on average have only a collection of numbers below the 100,000 books by adding the number of books per year less than 10,000 books.
Article 13 bill is too flat because it just requires the government to support the development of the program library collections. If only provides collection, the government has already done so. The problem is the amount budgeted government collection is not sufficient to improve the reading public interest.
Library Bill must set the amount of the collection is ideal for a library. For example, to the public library district / city: the number of collections is at least a third of the number of people with the addition of collections per year like the population. For the school library: a collection of the amount is at least ten times the number of students, with the addition of new collections per year like the number of students.
Without such provisions, this bill will only become a mere paper tiger. In addition, the number of collections that are not adequate will also complicate the librarian in collecting credit figures. Not a domino effect?
Bill libraries should be made clear by the language and more "spiked". Because, if too normative and the public will rise to slit-slit law for local government in order to avoid the obligation to promote the world's libraries.
I really, National Library has dissipate golden opportunity for the Library Bill powerfull.

Interest Read, Key Success ECCE

Interest Read, Key Success ECCE
By the facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

This paper has been published in the online mediaKabar Indonesia, 23 May 2007

Early childhood education has an important role in the national education system. Like a house, early education is pondasinya. Research in the field of neurological state during the first years, infant brain develops rapidly with the result that many neurons exceed demand.
The connection must be strengthened through various stimulus because the connection is not strengthened with the stimulus will atrohy (dwindle and destroyed). This is the great number of connections that affect children's intelligence. Dose of stimulus that is precise and balanced will be able to redouble capability 5 - 10 times the capacity before.
One of the stimulus that is needed by young children is a stimulus to read. Motivation to read is to make young children have a high interest in reading, although they can not read.
Experience Marcia Thomas, a mother in Memphis, Tennesse, as quoted Fauzil Adhim (2007), prove that the activities read books on early childhood can melesatkan intelligence brain child. Marcia Thomas talked, "Our Children, Jennifer, born in September 1984. One of the first gifts we received is a book The Read-Aloud Handbook. We read the introductory chapter, and we are very impressed with the story Cushla and their families. We then decided to give a "diet" to the children of women with us at least ten books a day.

Then, he must undergo in-patient in hospital for seven weeks because of interference heart and corrective surgery. Thus, we began to read books to him when he was still menjalanai intensive care, and we can not emergency, we leave a tape recording contains stories and ask the nurse to turn to make our children.
Marcia Thomas of the business so vibrant is not futile. At elementary school age, children always get the highest score for reading lessons. There is no predilection that preferred by Jennifer exceed read.
However, it is not the most felicitate the parents. Marcia Thomas said, "What makes the story of our valuable is that Jennifer was born with Down Syndrome. At the age of two months, Marcia was told that Jennifer almost to blindness, deaf, and mental retardation is severe. When a test at the age of four years, only IQ-III. "
Story above shows that the activities read books on the baby to give a positive impact: first, to foster interest in reading. Infants who have been introduced since the beginning of the book will be the book "no more than" just a game of campaigning. The book will be regarded as a friend to play the fun. This impression will be recorded in the memory strong baby until the next growth.
Second, increase the vocabulary of infants. When a mother reading books on baby, the baby will feel are invited to speak by the mother. This is important in order ability to stimulate the baby talk.

Third, improving the relationship between maternal love and children. Read books on the baby is one of the activities for the issue of the relationship parents and children. Children will feel observed by the parents.
To foster interest in reading is far more important than to teach young children "can" read. Why? Because how many children of this nation who can read but poor interest in reading. When they still kindergartens so in the spirit of reading, but when the primary interest on all "retrograde".
This is due to the practice in the mall early childhood education in the country. Teachers and parents are too demanding to children to be able to read. Each day the children "didrill" with reading lessons. As a result, children experience a summer.
Reading, which is a preoccupation as a game, has now been changed to "monster" that frightening. Reading has now been changed to the burden. Moreover, the education curriculum, we anticipate solid enough to make children more lazy to read.
What happens when millions of these students land in the water "forced" to read so-called "have to learn." They were "forced" to read in order to pass the exam with good value .. Actually, better education is education that produce graduates who continue to read throughout his life.
Learning to read with interest read only will robots smaller than a clever strike in the letter. This will be a different result, if the children been grown motivation, taste, and his desire to read. The process "can be" read will be achieved by itself in line with the interests memuncaknya read.

The main obstacles to reading interest in early childhood is the lack of public access to books. The book is still the goods too expensive for most Indonesians. Parents will feel put aside objections to "bribe his life" to buy the book.
Library Village
For that, the government should make policies that parents can access the books easily and cheaply. Government needs to re-draft mengaktualisasikan village library. Library village, which is regulated by Decree of the Minister of Home Affairs and Regional Autonomy No. 3, 2001, can be used to improve community access to lower secondary education services to young children.
Article 2 paragraph 2 of Kepmendagri and Otda mentioned that the Establishment of Library Village should be agreed by the people through the process of deliberation in the forum and Rural Community Board to include the existing educational institutions. In this village library can open the service group play.
In India, precisely in the State of Kerala, village library successfully eradicate illiteracy. The achievement of India to open this horizon we think, that the village library is not only melayankan books, but also can be used to improve the quality of education. Government we can emulate India's success, by empowering the village library to improve the quality of early childhood education.

Focus Group Play services (KB) is to seek to have children love, interest, and "madness" to the book. This is in the world of education is often referred to by the term pre-reading education. To realize this idea, the village will need to complete the library's collection with books early age.
Education pre-reading this could actually be given by anyone who has a devotion to the world and the world of children's books. Instructor enough to motivate the children to have a high interest in reading. Motivation can be provided through the play, sing, spin a yarn, or read books on children.
To be more efficient, the village library can also embrace the Garden Education Al Qur 'an (TPA) to teach reading interest in students. Interest should read also been grown on the children learn that Al-Qur 'an. So that when they read Al-Qur 'an understanding solemnly with interest, interest, and a strong devotion to Al-Qur' an.
Thus, children will have a strong belief in the characters. During this, the landfill only to educate children to read and memorize Al-Qur 'an, without understanding the characters. As a result, when they depart adults, Al-Qur 'an only a reading of the dry without meaning.
Utilizing the village library to open Group Play service will bring a double impact, namely, improving community access to the middle of early childhood education, improve the quality of early childhood education itself.