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Selasa, 09 Desember 2008

Quo Vadis international school?

Quo Vadis international school?
"In times of drastic change, it is the learners who inherit the future." (E Hoffer)

In the National Education System Act of 2003, the government introduced the new classification of the school. The school is called, among other international schools (SBI), with the category of independent schools (SKM), and the usual school groups (SB). At SBI, the education given the space to use the syllabus of learning and assessment, which is generally used in secondary schools in countries that joined in the OECD. Syllabus learning and assessment functions as the only material to the enrichment of the national curriculum (KTSP). Meanwhile, for schools with the independent category, the education providers can use the semester credit system (SKS) as often in universities. On the other hand, ordinary schools only provide education in classical and using KTSP. Although the classification of schools that may well be seen to encourage change and improve the quality of education, socialization is not running because the maximum, the result is still a little confusing people.

In 2004/05, SMAN 70 Jakarta and the high school syllabus Labschool begin adopting the Cambridge Advanced Level (A Level) in order to enrich the national curriculum on the students. Furthermore, the same program introduced in the State Senior High School 8 Jakarta, SMA Negeri 21 Jakarta, and 68 state high schools in Jakarta. Now, international schools (SBI) is scattered in a number of districts and cities in the country. It is estimated, the end of budget year 2009, the number of SBI will reach 260 schools, consisting of 100 senior high schools, junior (100), and SMK (60), which is expected to be able to release the predicate school rintisannya (Pena Education / online edition, March 28, 2008) .

Good practices

Although the international qualifications of the program is still relatively short, some schools that use the Cambridge IGCSE / A Level in Jakarta has begun to show results of successful work severity. Performance and progress that is a result of the development, dampingan, and supervision of the systematic, regular, and measured by a team of developers SBI established the Office of Secondary Education and Higher Jakarta. It can be seen from the growing awareness of the importance to continue to learn and reflect (reflective teaching and learning) and the development of knowledge and awareness of the democratic and multicultural education, as evidenced when they serve students with the ability, speed, and a variety of interests. Teachers in the SBI to understand the meaning of the concept of deep-learning, higher order thinking skills, and contextual learning for students to know and the more limited, and benefit from learning Rote learning, which is used in ordinary schools. Meanwhile, the progress shown by the students on the attitude seems to independence, responsibility, ability to work together, honesty, tolerance, and Risk Taking.

Results of gaining students in the IGCSE exam in the first three years (2005-2007) is quite delightful. As is known, the Cambridge A Level program is a golden standard of its Cambridge International Examination (CIE), which is recognized certificate for a number of ivy League foreign universities, such as the University of Cambridge, Oxford University, Harvard University, MIT, and Stanford University. Pros from other programs is the learning IGCSE Cambridge assessment and more emphasis on problem-solving ability, to foster creative thinking, and autentik (contextual learning), the material seem a little more difficult. In the IGCSE, almost all of the selected subjects (math, english as a second language, physics, chemistry, and biology), the achievement of students is to give hope, as shown in the graph comparing the results of IGCSE 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 below.


Even for mathematics, the average high school students of Jakarta, which have value (CA) percentage is higher than the student participants over 140 countries Cambridge IGCSE syllabus in the world. Results IGCSE and A Level the period 2005-2007 is enough to give students an overview that middle-school students are also able to show our international performance, although they must be issued without a budget is very large as the Olympics of Science and Mathematics.

As far as the development of the SBI can be used as indicators of the interest and desire of management education in schools and madrasah for innovation and improving the quality of education. Curiosity and courage to try to begin to grow with the positive and delightful. However, a slightly worrying from our findings in several areas, was the speed in the schools to make changes (to adopt syllabus learning and assessment foreigners) are still not balanced with efforts to systematically strengthen and improve the quality of resources, personnel (principals, teachers, and management), build a system of accountability and control over all the academic activities and financial administration of schools. As a result, the growth of the SBI so quickly that even cause problems, kontraproduksi, and loss of direction (a sense of direction). With the loss of the message changes, which changes from the previous tecermin the school management to become more transparent, accountable and participatory, the program is suspected of SBI will only bring a new emergency on the community. Low quality of the management of SBI recognized Surya Dharma PhD, Director of the Ministry of Education staff. 260 school heads from the SBI, given the English language ability test, TOEIC, according to Surya Dharma, only 10% have adequate ability, while the remainder, only 90% of their ability score reached 245, meaning that is still below the basic level (Elementary). Other data, the results of IELTS test, which will be projected teacher can teach in class stub international situation is similar. From about 40 participants, less than 20% are able to obtain IELTS score between 4,0-4,5, while the rest only a score between 2,5-3,7. Even a teacher allowed to teach international program must have a minimum score of 6.5 on IELTS (or a score of 550 on the TOEFL). The results of an assessment of competency and academic ability of teachers pedagogical instructor shows the situation is almost the same, unfortunate.

On the basis of that, the Ministry of Education is expected to be little to keep and control the growth of schools SBI. The Ministry of Education should dare to begin reflection on the concept and implementation of SBI so far. The Ministry of Education (directorate-level central directorate builder, the center of curriculum, assessment center, and offices of education) must be able to sit together to formulate policies on the back of SBI with better and more measurable. The Ministry of Education must be prepared Roadmap SBI, revisited curriculum framework, reviewing standards, assessment and evaluation program used for this. So that the results of the study can be more optimal result, the Ministry of Education should also involve schools joined in the national plus school (NSP) and other educational institutions that have been experienced and successful in managing international education programs (international Credentials). The Ministry of Education should try to release the attitudes have (possessive) over the ability to grow and start working together (Collaborative works) with institutions / individuals outside the government (non-state agencies) that might be seen during this very critical of some government policies.

Efforts to improve the quality of education must be supported by development of teachers, principals, and management (capacity building), which conducted a systematic, measurable, and sustainable development by involving all stakeholders in education. Understanding the importance of development resources, personnel (SDK) in a sustainable it must put in every manager and implementing education policies and central regions. In addition, the function and role of school principals should always be more diefektifkan mainly related to the management of learning (AND management) and monitoring and evaluation (monitoring and evaluation). Head of school should be a model and source of inspiration for teachers, students, and other management schools. Furthermore, the head of the school with other education stakeholders should be able to build and develop a shared vision of the school and developed together, too. Any changes will bring new challenges and expectations. However, as mentioned by Hoffer at the beginning of this writing, only for those who can afford to maintain and nourish motivasinya to continue learning (Learner), which will be able to inherit and control the future of the planet that is always changing.

Syamsir by Nature, The Education Foundation Sukma

The meaning is to Interest Read

Great. That response to news that Indonesia could become a model for the eradication illiterates in the Asia Pacific region. Rating given the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Since 2007, adult illiteracy in Indonesia declined 1.7 million people, to be 10.1 million. Around 7 million of them women. Success adult illiteracy eradication program, among other support 59 universities and the private sector in various regions in Indonesia. Window open more world-wide for their literacy.

However, the figure was not in line with UNESCO's survey results indicate that our interest is very low reading. Two years ago we are the lowest in Asia. Meanwhile, the International Educational Achievement record reading ability of Indonesian students in the lowest areas of ASEAN. Conclusions drawn from the research over 39 countries. Indonesia ranks to 38. Two among other things that cause the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) put us in the order in the case of low development of human resources.

Reality-reality was to prove, literacy does not guarantee increased interest and ability to read. We need to be concerned. Without reading interests, from which we can obtain fresh ideas and new? Seen from the number of our population and the number of daily circulation each day, the percentage of reading newspapers is very small. Surrounding the 1%? UNESCO set, as 10%.

Editorial Media Indonesia Monday and discussed this matter. Among others The progress of electronic media one of the factors that hamper the participating interest in reading speed. Indeed, the first since we rely much more oral than written culture. Community we prefer to watch the puppet, for example. That the number of books in local languages does not mean, confirming the assumption was. But we are not too surprised when we see people now spend far more time in front of the television than reading. Symptoms of this actually exists in all countries, depending on the citizen groups, watch, and the type of reading material there.

There should be social pressure influence. For example, if the interest and ability to read a requirement for social classifications? In the lower level, our people are illiterate, or the ability to read less, work more difficult to find sufficient if compared with their more educated. This should encourage people to learn to read better.

The situation with other people in developed countries. Reading seems to have become a part of life. Read also entertainment. Systems and facilities built to support it. Once the cumulative readings of the meaning of the history of solid, scientific meaning, or the solid values of humanity, moral and spiritual, and entertainment, so that people choose to live in it. Reading has become part of their lifestyle.

Alex Inkeles, sociology professor emeritus at the Hoover Institute, Stanford University, once said the main purpose of economic development is to achieve a decent living standard for all people. However, it seems we agree, the progress of a nation can not be measured only from the GNP per capita of its people. Development also includes ideas mendewasakan political life, such as tecermin in the process of government that stable and orderly, who supported the inclination of many people. Also includes a comprehensive education for the people, including the development of arts and culture, communication facilities, and the enrichment of all forms of recreation. In conclusion, development requires changes in attitudes and behavior of humans. Need of transformation. The most powerful means of communication for the transformation. Including the reading.

So far, we seem confused about the idea of transformation. Reasonable demands because of the transformation changes the way of thinking. The little we should leave the way of thinking that has long sediment in the culture and we have expired. Already tens or even hundreds of years. Leaving it as leaving the principles of our original life. Drag overextend contradiction about this is still happening until now. In the case modernization, our heterogeneous society.

According to Inkeles, the characteristics of modern humans, two; the external and internal. The first related to the environment. The second is about the attitudes, values and feelings. The external changes are easily recognizable. Urbanization, mass communication, industrialization, political life, and education, all the symptoms of modernization. However, even the modern environment, we did not by itself a modern human. Just when we successfully change the way we think, our feelings change, to change our behavior, then we can call themselves a modern human.

The characteristics of modern man if he is willing to open themselves to new experiences, innovation and change. Then the world will open the window. That can all happen in the beginning through the reading of modern humans because not only limit the horizon in the neighborhood environment, but want to widen horizon to horizon other.

The problem now, how to increase interest in reading, and improve the quality and quantity of reading materials in accordance with the needs of modern society? About illiterate, we are considered a model for the eradication illiterate, the system is, of course we will continue. If you can, mempercepatnya. Kartini (1879-1904) is more than seabad and berprakarsa teaching reading and writing of his people even though he himself only completed primary school. Now there are 7 million illiterate women. Fact is deplorable and should be lamented. The possibility that they live in villages and remote areas that are difficult to reach.

About the quality and quantity of reading material, actually two things, the interests and reading, forming a vicious cycle. Interest can be read by reading material quality and / or a decoy. If the interest amount read a lot, a lot of quantity. So forth. Quality and quantity of the book insuffcient, and affordable price, can keep people from temptation, temptation other entertainment that is not quality.

That the people, from children to parents, often glued to watch television, as throughout their spare time. Perhaps because there is no other entertainment, or because there is no requirement for children to read more at home. In addition, there is no obligation for parents to give example. About keteladanan parents, in the Public Library of Sarawak, Malaysia, by requesting the cooperation parents to inculcate reading habit. People tualah the loan book. In several weeks, officials Public Library come back to replace the books with the new.

Experience is presented by the representatives of Malaysia when attending international seminars Movement facility Interest Read (GPMB) on Reading for All. GPMB social organization founded in October 2001, initiated by, among others, National Library and the Ministry of National Education. He works to be partners both central and local government efforts to increase interest in reading people. However, despite seven years standing, gaungnya not we hear more. Perhaps the public is also not too concerned when it concerns the interests read.

Seminar on Reading for All held two years ago, also attended by representatives from Japan, the Netherlands, Australia, and Singapore. They concurred that the increase interest in reading can be done to foster the reading habit in a discipline via the formal education. Speakers from Japan, for example, say they now have a principle; best friend is sitting book. Everywhere in public places we see them reading. The habit is maintained. Schools in Japan require students to read for 10 minutes before learning activities. Methods of education are made in such a way so that students are actively pushed to read.

Read about the Japanese interest rates, already since the Meiji Restoration more seabad ago, Japan has the determination to pursue the progress of Western culture. Until now also thousands of foreign books, especially from the United States and Europe, have been translated into Japanese. As people thirst, they are not constantly gain knowledge and knowledge through reading. For approximately 125 million people, in there every day tens of million copies circulating newspaper, monthly circulation of hundreds of millions of copies of magazines and similar types of publication, and printed each year more than 1 billion books. World record holder. More than 50% of workers handling industry knowledge.

Exposes the envoy abroad seminar in Reading for all the spark the public to read avidly in Indonesia. Essentially they assert, not to advance the interests read closely associated with the increased progress of a community. And increased interest in reading is the most effective channels through which formal education. In the Netherlands, the increased interest in reading circumvented by requiring students to enrich the knowledge of reading, support the library system that meets their needs. In Singapore, the interests of the students read been grown through the curriculum. For example, teachers require that students complete school work with the support of as many books. In Australia, students have the kind of card to write down the title of the book reads. Note the results of reading and assessment of the books that do read every day, before classes start. Teachers told students told the contents of each book has been dibacanya. This system is now also in Indonesian schools affiliated with the Australian schools.

To support the increased interest in reading, it will not be enough with only imbauan and hoots. Many more serious problems faced by the community so that the increased interest is not considered to be read directly into their responsibility. Therefore, these policies must be made in the system, especially in the formal education system. Beyond that, awakening the system and facilities to be supporters hope many people, including the procurement of books that quality affordable price and the number is sufficient. Also, the library, a library that amount sufficient to schools from primary level to university libraries and public-library. For example, other than that owned by the government, will be very ideal if every neighborhood, or at least every RW, berprakarsa build a library or reading hall for the residents. A number of cultural activists have done so.

Hopefully we can prove it, what benefits menggulirkan tradition of reading for human development of modern Indonesia for the future. Books reading children that fairy tales and stories challenging or mysterious, for example, can develop the imagination of children know, without limit. If they are strong enough imagination, they probably will not leave without trying to achieve. Similarly, through reading, we will be willing to leave the narrow views that are not in accordance with the time. Many of the books that solid information about the development of knowledge and experience of the world community in turn will be berpacu we make progress in pursuing that also be tried nations.

By Toeti Adhitama, Member of the Board of Editors Media Group

Debate Lumpur Sidoarjo

Case mud in Sidoarjo technically still fishing pro and contra. For example, underground blowout (UgBO) in the wells Banjarpanji-1, which is the cause of the accused (David 2007, and Tingay 2008), still in the form of a hypothetical controversial because the various data and facts to contradict.

In addition to this hypothetical need to be proven correct, there is still a hypothetical two more near, the mud volcano caused remobilisasi zone, high (overpressured zone) through the field tereaktifikasi fault that the increased movement by the earthquake and tektonik (Mazzini, 2007) and hypothetical Geothermal , The discharge superheated hydrothermal fluids bertemperatur and high pressure through the field rekahan (Sudarman 2007).

Tektonik increase in activity as a cause of the emergence of mud in Sidoarjo (Lusi) support the increased activity of Mount Merapi and Semeru three days after the Yogyakarta earthquake on 27 May 2006 and the accident results of drilling mud loss (loss circulation) in the wells Banjarpanji-1 about 10 minutes after the earthquake and the total circulation loss of 2 times after the aftershock. Thermal data recorded Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) shows the increase in the activities of Mount Merapi and Semeru of 2-3 times, as discussed in the Harris and Ripepe Paper, 2007.

Mud volcano is not new in East Java, as we can see at Scone collapse structure (7km from Lusi), Kalang Anyar & Pulungan (Sedati, Sidoarjo), Mount Anyar (Campus UPN Surabaya), Bleduk Kuwu & Keradenan (Pretoria) , Wringin Anom / Pengangson (Lawrence), Semolowaru (Campus Unitomo, Surabaya), Dawar Blandong (Greystones), Sangiran (Central Java), Socah (Belfast, Madura). Mud volcano has been there since the days of old, even recorded in the Book of Pararaton, Fiber Sheena, Chronicle of the velocity, folklore Timun Mas (Satyana, 2007). Only the time of birth is associated with the drilling of wells as the cause.

After data is analyzed drilling wells, appeared in the wells UgBO not happen. The pressure in the well is too low to cause rekahan long rekahan arrest and has remained open so that the mud out. Sumurnya it, which is the easiest route (the path least Resistance) for the discharge of mud in the dead, not removing the mud, liquids and gases. Even since the beginning of Lusi mud have been issued with a very high velocity, as 50.000m3 or more than 300,000 bbl / day, the BOP (blowout preventer) in the open. Drilling activity can still be done, such as fishing, cementing and circulating, and others.

At the initial spurt, debit mud equivalent to a third of U.S. oil production, at the peak velocity exceeds Indonesia's oil production, a million barrels per day. The likelihood is very small for a well to remove the debit extreme, the required parameters such as flow and Reservoir permeability greater than 3,500 wells mD with a radius of 2,286 times (about 1.4 km diameter) and exposed in the formation kujung setebal 3,200 times. Simulation is done with debit formula radial flow Equation Darcy Law (Nawangsidi, 2007). As an illustration, permeability, the highest production wells in the formation kujung of 22.5 MD. So, to achieve the required parameters debit Lusi flow 140 times larger.

When first outburst occurred on 29 May 2006, performed well in the injectivity test to determine whether storm-related wells. After drilling mud dipompakan as much as 2 times, there are no signs of a decrease in pressure as the tire leak. The pressure to survive at 900 psi. Injectivity next test conducted on the following day before cementation with the injection pressure of 370 psi with a rate of 2.5 bbl / minute which also showed no relationship between the spray and wells.

Key to determine whether the formation is broken with the calculation of whether there have been UgBO that lead to high pressure that split the point on the formation terlemah. The calculation of the value of using the shut in casing pressure, fluid density, bottom hole pressure and leak-off test data. The calculation that must be using the data read in the wells and the facts that occurred in the field. From the calculations revealed that the formation is not broken.

One effort to investigate whether there is a relationship between the spray and the wells are snubbing time of the operation and re-entry well in the long sonan do with the temperature and logging. If there UgBO, formation will be broken at the point terlemah in the casing shoe and mud flows will be back in the chassis. However, the results of logging sonan not show the 'noise' as a rule if there is a flow Fluid behind the casing and there is no deviation of the temperature anomaly is expected if there have been UgBO.

If the storm associated with the wells and flow through the wells, several months after the storm should only hole wells that have not yet installed a large chassis as tergerus Fluid flow, which is very large. Theory is often expressed by groups UgBO, when Fluid flows from the formation kujung possibilities in the formation kalibeng clay, breaking the formation and bring the results gerusan mud. If so what happened, 'fish' in the hole that should have fallen, not because the hole squeezed again has become very large. In fact, during the snubbing operation at the end of June until the end of the re-entry operations in mid-August, 2006, 'fish' is not life, not fall, and remain in position when the first left.

Differences in opinion and interpretation is actually normal. However, because of concerns the intent of many people, how beautiful if bunker-bunker that contradict each other sitting together, to see the data and the fact that indeed happens, discuss, debate and thorough.

Unfortunately, it does not happen in their own country. Thus the Geological Society in London and the American Association of Petroleum hand movement (AAPG) in Cape Town that will be on the special session on Lusi arena as experts debate the world. When the victims continue to be resolved, concerning the emergence of the trigger spray Lusi need dituntaskan. On the forum held in a thorough debate and held in Indonesia?

By Bambang Istadi, Geolog and Petroleum Practitioners

Law Propublik Hajj?

Organizing the implementation PILGRIM has long become an important invite the attention of many people. Attention is mainly on issues of the votes less than optimal. The growing criticism over the implementation of pilgrimage is not without reason. Cases related to the implementation and maintenance of this pilgrimage and then raise the sharp criticism not only questioned the level of professionalism of management, but also encourage the birth of the various views that may require changes in the pattern of implementation during this pilgrimage, which has the authority to the Ministry of Religious Affairs. Some community response impressed override other aspects of the pilgrimage, the device compares the invitation that rarely well.

Mentioned the fact that Law No. 17 Hajj 1999 is beginning the process of government efforts in making improvements and changes of the pilgrimage. However, within 10 years after the process of political reform progress, the PILGRIM less impressed still meet the aspirations of the reform, particularly in the aspects of efficiency and effectiveness of services, protection, and justice in berhaji. Yet again the issue of transparency and accountability of public services pilgrimage, which always get the shaft.

Along with these demands, the government actually has to do with the initiative to submit the draft law perhajian since 2006. After discussion in the hearings (hearing) the House of Representatives Commission VIII progress in the time range for 2 years and 5 months, since 28 April 2008 Hajj Tax Act 17 of 1999 officially replaced by Law No. 13 of 2008 on the Organization of Worship Hajj. As an improvement from the previous law, Law No. 13 of 2008 has some design modifications of the pilgrimage, which put the principle of fairness, professionalism, accountability and the principles of non-profit.

As is known, Law No. 13 of 2008 contains a Chapter 17 with 69 articles, while Law No. 17 of 1999 Chapter 16 contains 30 articles. Identification of some of the differences between the Law No. 13 Year 2008 and Law No. 17 of 1999 must be prepared and disseminated by following the pattern of changes in the definition. For example, Article 7, which must be translated in the form of government regulation, 1 article in the Presidential Regulation, 14 articles in the form of the Minister of Religious Affairs Regulations, and Article 1 to the Regulation in the scheme.

Three Sensitive Issues

Three issues are sensitive in the Hajj Law No. 13 Year 2008 is on the Management Asset Management and Development of the cost of PILGRIM (BPIH), management of funds eternal nation (DAU), and the new body which will oversee the implementation of the PILGRIM, namely Hajj Commission of the Philippines (KPHI). The three issues that need extra attention, especially from the way the Ministry of Religious Affairs to formulate the objectives, indicators and mechanisms for the management of funds and institutions in the implementation of the scheme in accordance with the law.

About BPIH management, if there is a good idea to the Ministry of Law No. 17 of 2003 on State Finance, especially Article 2 paragraph h and i. It is intended that all of the planning process to fund the implementation of the BPIH can be controlled by the public. In addition, the scheme accountability also become easier because almost all the Nomenclature and the terminology used in the State Finance Law fit with the country's financial system checks. Unlike what happened during this, when the funds are used without reference BPIH adequate.

DAU also be similar management, namely the mechanisms stipulated in the State Finance Law. In addition, the Ministry of Religious Affairs should also be sensitive in preparing the criteria, requirements, procedures and the use of the DAU. There is a good idea if the DAU as the amount used for efforts to increase the quality of construction, services, and protection of Hajj congregation, particularly the process of development and services pascahaji who impressed during this ignored.

In addition, in order to answer criticism about the central role of the Ministry of Religious Affairs as well as the regulator of the Hajj operators, in the law that established several new articles on the KPHI as independent and autonomous. Institutions will be appointed president with the consent of the House of Representatives, and working full time to perform functions such as supervision of the monitoring, evaluation, technical assistance, and provide recommendations on the implementation of improvement efforts pilgrimage. The role of the Ministry of Religious Affairs in preparing and formulating the tasks, functions and procedures of appointment and dismissal member commission that will reflect whether the Department of Religion in the pro reform and changes or not.

If the third issue is managed well in a management framework which is transparent and accountable, as a public policy pilgrimage is expected to be implemented in accordance with the principle and purpose, as diterakan in Law No. 13 Year 2008. Therefore, the management framework of the policy of religious pilgrimage, which will be elaborated in the law, their children form of Government Regulation, Presidential Regulation, the Minister of Religious Affairs Regulations, and the Regulation must rely on the principle and goal.

As a form of public service in the area, Haji moment of the inception of a new law that can be used to create the Department of Religious strong social capital in the midst of the community. Strong social capital can be created if the implementation and management of the pilgrimage can increase trust, kohesifitas, altruisme, mutual assistance, networking, collaboration and social (Blakeley and Suggate, 1997). In the language of Fukuyama and Putnam, a public policy imperative to create social capital as a capability arising from the trust (Trust) in a community (Spellerberg, 1997). As well as the financial capital, social capital can only be seen as resources that can be used for efforts to repair process, service, protection and pilgrimage to the front.

By A Baedowi, staff at the Directorate General of Phu-Theft

Reform recruitment policy to aid RI's military budget

Evan A. Laksmana

Vice President Jusuf Kalla remarked during the recent IndoDefence Expo 2008 that the strengthening of Indonesia's defense sector by prioritizing operational readiness and the main weapons system remains a national imperative.

This statement, however, does not explicitly acknowledge the underlying problem of an underfunded military. The possible takeover of the Indonesian Military (TNI) businesses and the aging weaponry displayed during the Marine Corps anniversary recently are examples of how crucial the insufficient defense budget is.

Are we simply cursed with an everlasting underfunded military?

Since its inception during the Independence War, the military has never had adequate funding from the government, even during the heyday of Sukarno and Soeharto.

Today, although enjoying a much larger defense budget than before, defense officials claim the government is only funding around 30 percent of its current needs.

The debate surrounding this claim notwithstanding, the problem of defense budgeting is about many inter-related issues, including the TNI's business activities, the lack of transparency and accountability in defense management, doctrinal stagnation and the financial capacity of the central government.

The complexities attached to each issue seem to lead to a "fatalistic" argument that the problem of defense budgeting will always persist.

The possible long-term solution to this age-old conundrum actually lies not in Jakarta, but all the way over in Magelang, at the Military Academy.

In hindsight, we could begin by looking at the fact that the largest portion of Indonesia's military budget goes to personnel salaries.

Lex Rieffel and Jaleswari Pramodhawardani argued in a paper published last year that personnel costs account for 45 percent of the total defense outlay in 2007, or around Rp 14.6 trillion, to support more than 437,000 troops and civilians.

Clearly the answer here is not to simply cut back the personnel in one go. This certainly would cause major national instability if soldiers and bureaucrats were faced with possible sudden unemployment. This much history has taught us.

Instead, the long-term solution we might want to consider here is the revamping and tightening of the TNI's recruitment policies at the academy level.

Such recruitment reform at the academy level could pave the way in the future to cut personnel defense spending gradually in the long run (quantitatively), while increasing the pay scale of soldiers and officers to a sufficient level (qualitatively).

More importantly, however, this could help solve the problem of "the inflation of generals" and promotional logjam where, to put it crudely, there are many officers, but few positions available.

Scholars argued that this promotional logjam began to surface during the late Soeharto and early reformasi periods when there was an increasing frequency of massive personnel reshuffles while the tenure of military commands was, in many instances, decreasing.

This was seen as a consequence of the increasing size of the officer corps by leaps and bounds in the 1960s through 1970s.

From the 59 cadets who graduated in the first class in 1960, the military academy later graduated 433 cadets in 1965. Later on, the number dropped to 85 graduates in 1976 only to rise again to 102 in 1980 and eventually 281 in 1991 -- resulting in an overall average of around 250 cadets per year.

The increasing size of the officer corps along with the domination of certain classes that held back succeeding classes have been argued by scholars to have contributed not only to a massive personnel reshuffle, but also to intense rivalry and feuds.

Especially amid the increasingly competitive promotional space as envisaged by the late Gen. Benny Moerdani, some officers with political connections back then could easily rise through the ranks.

During the New Order, it seems plausible to argue that the size of the officer corps was not a problem as ABRI's (as the TNI was known during Soeharto's era) "dual function" (dwifungsi) and secondment of officers to civilian positions (kekaryaan) could provide additional billets for middle and high-ranking officers.

Moreover, while personnel, budgetary and even perhaps political considerations may have guided decisions about cadet intake, the idea during the 1960s of developing a modern military academy and consolidating military education should also be factored in.

Is this still the case today? In late October this year, the Military Academy inducted 531 cadets, with 304 for the Army, 127 for the Navy and 100 for the Air Force.

In the absence of kekaryaan and dwifungsi, as well as the shrinking number of posts available to officers in the post-Soeharto bureaucracy, should we not ask why the number of cadets inducted this year is higher than average?

Finally, by reforming recruitment policies, we could not only have a more efficient and well-paid military force, but we could also increase the quality of Indonesia's future military leaders.

Political scholar Sukardi Rinakit has shown that there has been a decline in the quality of the officer corps as younger officers today were only average students in high school with an average grade of 6.5, compared with the high-quality students in the early 1970s and 1980s, whose average grade was 8.0. This, he argued, could make future military leaders more aggressive and less open-minded.

This argument might put too much emphasis on the significance of intellectual acuity and neglect leadership and other qualities, but an increasingly complex security environment coupled with a hardly breathing domestic defense establishment will require us to eventually incorporate the idea of a "soldier scholar" into our lexicon.

In other words, the challenge of repositioning the military to tackle the increasingly complex security environment in an even more complex democratic setting would at the very least require a mind at work.


The writer is a research analyst at the Indonesia Programme, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Library Merauke One Heart One Goal

Merauke-head Perpusnas Dady P. Rachmananta and Regent Merauke Johannes Gluba Gebze simultaneously to unveil the name board of Merauke Office Public Library building as a sign diresmikannya Library District Merauke, on Wednesday (26/11), with all witnessed muspida Merauke, the head office dijajaran the government of Merauke, the head of customs / tribes, and other communities.

According to the Head of State Infocom and a library district of Merauke Amari Baba said in a report library begin building the budget year 2007 to the end of 2008, and now this equipment furniture dianggaran the public library in 2008 is still in the process, so that not all equipment is in this building. "But for the library collection, since the year 2007 and 2008 have received material assistance from the library of National Library of 740 titles, or 1,488 copies," he said. In addition, he continued, in 2007 libraries also Kwinana have a car to get the help of mobile libraries, and the 2008 budget year, we also can help deconcentration funds from the National Library of 345 titles or 629 copies of library books. Amari is a former head of the Office of Fisheries revealed that perkembang library Merauke and rapidly growing, this is not the closest attention from Mr. Regent Gebze kepeduliannya with the library to improve intelligence community Merauke.

Meanwhile, the head Perpusnas Dady P. Rachmananta said in his speech is very happy because it can meet directly with the faces of all components of society in Merauke district, which already has the goods on the attention, appreciation and a very good response to the library and reading interests as a means to improve and enhance the quality of human resources (HR) . According to him, inaugurated the building with the Library District Merauke this concern and indicates a high appreciation of Mr. Regent and the DPRD members in the library and in efforts to increase public interest in reading. "The spirit of libraries in Indonesia, have been rising since the start of Law No. 43 Year 2007 on the Library. Law Library mengamanahkan to all of us to participate actively in developing and empowering the library, so that national development program to improve the nation can be realized equally, "he said.

Head Perpusnas that accompanied the Head of Public Relations Part Agus Sutoyo also said that the library area that is now, is a clear manifestation of success of local government in the dignity of Merauke district, because the library property, devoted entirely to the interests of knowledge and information society. Because the library is a smart means to make smart. "I also hope that other means of learning such as Mobil Library Nowhere is the National Library has been donated to the Library of Merauke District, as submitted Head of Communication and Information Agency Library of Mr. Amari, is the good cooperation that has been stranded for this between the National Library with the State of the Regional Library Board Provinces of Papua and the host of Communication and Information Agency Library Merauke district, "so he said.

Meanwhile, the Regent said Johannes Gluba Gebze form of government attention and concern, particularly the National Library to the Library is a Regional Merauke District to provide assistance Cars Nowhere Library and its collection, and assistance in the form of deconcentration funds appropriated for the procurement of books and 1 computer units complete. Regent also revealed, the local public library should continue to be improved collections and exhibitions, such as reading other books, story telling contest, the selection of academic librarian (example), and so forth. "This is the right place to stimulate the community to increase awareness of Merauke to the world that for some people, still less atensinya," he said.

Regent expects Gebze, activities that can stimulate interest in reading people continue to be developed and implemented continuously, and continuity can be sustained. There are still many other activities that can stimulate the public, please be by Mr. Amari and jajarannya, "he said. The Regent said, I continue to support any activities that the library developed regions, because the library is the community will get smart and look forward .****

source: agussutoyo

Party Book, North Sumatra in 2008 Gubsu: Reading Becomes Life Means More

MEDAN, North Sumatra Governor H. Syamsul Arifin accompanied the Head of National Library Dady P. Rachmananta, Chairman of the General IKAPI Setia Dharma Majid, Chairman of the DPRD, Chiefs of Regional Police, and Kajari did beat the gong to mark diresmikannya Party of North Sumatra Year Book 2008, Friday (28/11) in the Page Office of National Library and Archive Regional North Sumatra Province. Events that took place during the 10 days (from November 28 to December 7 2008) attended the entire Muspida North Sumatra, North Sumatra DPRD Chairman and people from the various elements that held up cooperation PB AMMI, IKAPI and Regional Library Board North Sumatra Province.

Chairman of the Committee OK Azhari in the party said the report, North Sumatra this book filled with various activities such as the Smart Car carnival, exhibition and bazaar, books, coloring contest for children in kindergartens, read poetry competitions, the English speech contest, the Batak language speech contest, karaoke contest, election pemustaka through the best reviewer, writing articles competitions, seminars and others. "All these activities aimed menumbuhkembangkan read the public interest, North Sumatra as the implementation of the vision of the Governor of Sumatra (Gubsu), so people are not stupid and have a future," he said.

Meanwhile, Setia Dharma Majid in his speech he was delighted because of concern Gubsu to see the development of community interest is high enough. This is proven by the enthusiasm of the community so big welcome party books, the concern of regional leaders to become the number one drug in the success of the provincial Department of Library and IKAPI implementation of a cooperation so that the party can be realized this book.

Head Perpusnas Dady P. Rachmananta party says the book is the second time in North Sumatra This becomes a measure of success in the Provincial Library Board's interest to see the community come to the library. "I am grateful to the Head of State Library of Mr. Zane Syafri have the opportunity to give young people did to cooperate in developing a library in the community empowerment and development interests through the party read this book," he said. Dady also said it is very well in the splendor of the activities that stimulate the community to improve the reading quite high, this guidance is not separate from Mr. Governor Syamsul Arifin, "he said.

Governor Syamsul Arifin, which provides referrals to state kepduliannya library and reading interest because this has been ordered by our predecessor, including the Prophet Muhammad dawn, which instructs us to read his. "By reading, kitra more easily understand the meaning, the meaning of life, read into the spearheads of success in pursuing our ideals, and also become more Since we had the spirit of life," he said. So I emphasize, continued, let us make this the number one activity from all our lives. "Read a more meaningful life," he said greeted with cheers less.

On occasion, the Head of State Library and Archives Regional Province of North Sumatra Zane Syafri receive the certificate of ISO 9001 - 2000 submitted Gubsu Syamsul Arifin. Governor of the enerjik friendly and also submit a charter to award the son of North Sumatra region that has been filed to develop the library and writing books donated to the Library District in North Sumatra, each to: Ir. H. Abdul Hafidz Hasibuan (Mayor Cliff High), H. Maymaran NS (Former Regent Deli Serdang), Dr. Sofyan Tan, Rizal Rudi Surya, and Dra. Diana Eemerita Saragih .***

source / author: agussutoyo

Digital Library, Inspire Smart Progress Library Indonesia

BALI-Secretary of the Regional Province of Bali I Nyoman Yasa Conference officially open the Digital Library of Indonesia (KPDI) first, on Tuesday (2 / 12) at the Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali. The inauguration ceremony marked the gong that beating by I Nyoman Yasa, and accompanied the Head Perpusnas Dady P. Rachmananta present keynote speaker Michael Monich, a PhD from the University of Karlscruhe Germany. The event was attended by participants from various regions in Indonesia and also participants from Asia Pacific, all of which a total of not less than 375 people.

The planned conference is held each year also coincides with a meeting to-11 International Conference on Asia-Pacific Digital Library (ICADL). I Nyoman Yasa said an international meeting is very important, because we can learn from countries that have used the technology for the development of digital libraries. With this digital technology, he said, can build excellent library service. "Therefore, the digital library is to make the inspiration for the library that can be easily accessible to the community," he said.

According to Dady P. Rachmananta annual meeting is a container for the organizers, library and librarian Indonesia for mutual exchange and sharing of experience on various aspects of development and the development of digital libraries. Dady also said that the digital library is a library of more conventional. Digital library is not a new type of library, because it still implement the basic principles of the library, but with the support of information technology is expected to realize a more modern library, complete, accessible, and user friendly with the management of the collection of national and local levels. "We know that the cultural heritage and knowledge have a certain size digital, which is managed by professionals to be used for and may be accessed by most of the people of Indonesia and the world," he said.

Head Perpusnas also inaugurate the meeting ICADL to-11 on Wednesday (3 / 12) in the same place that expects this meeting can be hikmahnya for the development and management of the library in Indonesia. Because now we have been lagging far from other countries because the use of technology for digital libraries have been implemented. ICADL meeting that the theme Digital Libraries: Universal and Ubiquitous Access to Information that would be expected to provide opportunities for community library in the digital world, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region to deliver progress has been achieved in creating a digital library that is able to support people to find, manage and utilize the necessary information.

Dady also stated that Perpusnas has seriously started the development of digital libraries nationwide since 2007. Target of the development of a national digital library planned achieved in 2013 are: (1) Pangkatan founding of the National Association of Data Catalog, (2) The founding of the National Digital Library Network (3) Transforming the Digital Materials National Library, (4) Improving Access to the National Digital Library Services through the Web Portal Perpusnas; (5) the organizational structure that can support the implementation of the National Digital Library, and (6) Increase the quality of public services through e-library. ***

source / author: agussutoyo

Disseminating information about RI NATIONAL LIBRARY SERVICE

National Library in the Field of Public Service Collection program has disclosure of information about the services of the National Library and must be informed to all pemustaka where it is to even out the city and if possible to exit the country. In 2008 this opportunity was conducted by the Head of Public Affairs Service Collection and 2 staff to visit the region Nanggro Aceh Darussalam in several libraries in the city of Banda Aceh on 20 to 22 November 2008. Prior to Banda Aceh has been the non-formal dikabarkan the Head of State Archives and Library Nanggro Aceh Darussalam and its jajarannya about plans visits and get a positive response even assisted seoptimalnya to the success of these activities.
The city of Banda Aceh, as we know on December 26, 2004 Sunday morning several years ago and had experienced tragic events that begins with the earthquake Richter scale 5 and the lapse of a few minutes after that by the Tsunami waves by a very terrible so meluluh lantakkan coastal cities along the coast Aceh and the western cities around the country even to Southeast Asia and South Africa, which resulted in hundreds of thousands of lives terengut soul, a serious event that can not be overlooked in the history of the modern life of this century.
Now the city of Banda Aceh the end of 2008, that is not how long more will reach the age of 4 after the tsunami and that we see here there is incentive to build facilities and infrastructure that was destroyed shattered, but now some have appeared a certainty hope will be new changes, although the trauma of the past forgotten by the difficult part of the community.
Our attendance at Sultan Iskandar Muda airport, facilitated by the office library vehicle offices on Thursday 20 November from 13.00 around noon and we menyempatkan present in the office of National Library and Archive, which is located at Lam Nyong near the campus of Syiah Kuala University Darussalam. Where visible in the statistics that the general public and to those who have visited since the year 2006 up to now in a graph manaik and many attend the Office of National Archives and Library District now changed its name to National Archives and Library.
Office of National Archives and Library Nanggro Aceh has 2 buildings in different locations, for the activities of the library located in Lam Nyong and activities for kearsipan located in Lampineung is close to the office of Governor of Aceh more than 2 km from the office library.

The condition that there is a reading room in the library is very solid with readers who use the collections available and also fully in line shelves of books. The number of collections of around 177,000 copies and 35,400 titles that are scattered in the reading room adult 1 and adult reading room 2, there is room to read a collection of distinctive religious, reading room for young people and all this is in the ground floor. For reading room and reference collection of deposits there being 2, while the reading room for children is provided in the building which there is in the back office.
Service extensions are available 7 units of mobile library car 2 units including assistance from the National Library, which originally was to get first aid from 1 unit of the National Library. And on December 26, 2004 a day before the tragic events of mobile library is a new car finished the exhibition and activities incidental Saturday, which is the next Monday will be returned to office, the initiatives taken in the parking lot near the home drivers in the area of Ulee Lheue beach and the facts speak come Tsunamis different waves suddenly the lead to the library circumferential car and terhempas such tergulung former home in the middle of the population in damaged condition can not be used again, even a driver with the family and head of the Regional Library also participate along with their families become victims of the tsunami that up to now not found their bones. The other 2 units aid donations from the German Goethe-Institute and the German city of Augsburg, 2 units of assistance from the Regional Government of NAD and 1 unit of assistance from World Vision and the car plus 1 unit for special exhibitions is a package of assistance from the local government.
Done distribute brochures about services to the National Library Service Agency office in the Archives and Library of NAD, we continue the activities of spreading information about the services the National Library to the library office in UPT UNSYIAH Darussalam and the library IAIN Ar-Raniry is also located at the campus Darussalam . Near some of the visitors that we had asked the campus UNSYIAH Darussalam is not so much to know about the existence and function of the National Library which is located in Jakarta and even the future they hope will be able to know more about the National Library with the way through the exhibition, even if that can be held in the city of Banda Aceh.
Before we rest in a hotel not far from the office library, we still have the opportunity facing the head office in the library archives office space in the region alone Pineung Lam said about the purpose and the arrival Please give my kind regards from officials at the National Library. Mr. Kamaruddin as the head office of National Archives and Library of NAD received with pleasure and told the staff to help our activities as possible during the city of Banda Aceh.

Source: Fadli (young librarian Perpusnas) in December. '08

Selasa, 02 Desember 2008

Book publishers have questioned the Ethics recycle

Never buy a book and disappointed because you never buy the same book with a different title? I did. Many times even. A few books CPNS test that I bought for the preparation go into the fate of civil service. Then books psikotes when hunting jobs and require psychological tests. And also books Kahlil Gibrar the boom in early 2000's. I bought the last group of photographers demand Budi Darma, Male Other Secarik in the Letter.

Collection of books and test results CPNS psikotes published several publishers with titles that more or less the same. Disegel book so I only berpaku the introduction in the back of each envelope to think about the contents. It was bought, the contents of books with different publishers are many similarities, there is even a very similar. Only about a number that changed. Therefore, many key answers that do not comply with it. I as consumers who want to obtain information concerning a variety of course disappointed.

Book Kahlil Gibrar three-quarter money. This may be the most books published in many versions exceed the original works of the author. Adhe in the book Declare (2008) write that the works have been published Gibrar by more than 20 publishers with 76 different titles. Extraordinary is not it? This is a phenomenon that exciting at the same time concern. Gibrar Sufi figure that is known to the children among junior high school teenagers. There are original works, such as Wing-wing Patah and the Prophet. But the rest of the titles new results''creativity''publisher of the content most pieces of snippets and even summary. Without adequate knowledge about Gibrar, buyers will think that all new works (other) from Gibrar.

Meanwhile, the book Budi Darma, men in the Other Secarik Letters, published by MONEY (children's publishing Mizan), is recycled from the book collection of previously published short story with the title Adinan critics. This book is packed with new style book. Covers with different and interesting introduction to the rear, plus the author of the images themselves. In this new book added a new paper. If you had to buy tapes from singers who are repacked or Recycled - songs long ditambahi one-two new songs - this book using the same marketing strategy.

For the fan - who always want to collect the papers idolanya - Recycled edition will disikat although the amount of money for works that have never owned. But for consumers who want to read and find out what new things that are presented from a Begawan as Budi Darma, buy Recycled paper on the disappointing.

Segendang sepenarian with MONEY, Qanita (again, children's publishing Mizan) issued a paper entitled phenomenal Fatima Mernissi women harem. This book was published by Mizan different title, Forbidden Terrace. There is no information at all in the new edition of the book is that two different books with titles that have the same contents, the translation from the Dreams of Trespass: Tales of Girlhood harem. Only a few sheets of the copyright: the new edition, the mold 1, June 2008. Information is also biased because of the birth rancu assumption that this new book.

Serambi publisher, also do the same. But they are quite fair to include the title ever since with a smaller font, Angel Ask Event: Even Angel Ask any translation of the work Jeffrey Lang from the title used for the previous publication; Even Ask any Angel.

ScriPtaManent is the publisher of re-publish I, Book, and my only piece of paper Muhidin M. Dahlan with the title Road Street children a new author. The last is more''fair''because it provides information on the back cover - although with small writing and vague:''the latest edition: I, books, and the piece of erotic''.

Recycle books that are presented with a new title without complete information about the newness and difference with the previous publication, for me, harming the readers. Moreover, buyers are not given the opportunity to check profiteering. For books in the stores often tergelar my plastic seal (Wrapping) and can not be opened before completing''the administration''at the checkout desk.

The two prospective buyers only brief narration or comments that readers generally figure to the public and candidates terjerat attracted buyers. According to me, this style pengelabuhan not responsible.

In upholding the chain''''perbukuan, publishers are pillars of the an important role to play in between the author, printing, distribution, bookstores, libraries, and readers. Publisher is the first filter from the transfer of knowledge that will be acceptable to consumers. Publishers determine the script which will be published and which need not be consumed readers.

As a consumer, of course, book readers will get up for the rights of the whole because the publisher RADIO reckless change, change the title of the book with the same contents. Why not stay issued by the same title? Additional new content or some revisions could be given as a description. With that, buyers can get a reasonable consideration if you want to buy the newest edition again or not. If the books are in demand and sought readers, the book will surely remain low.

However, if the publisher is meniatkan for the reader, then this shape public works fraud in the world perbukuan. Prospective buyers do not get full information about what will be purchased and dibacanya.

Apparently, Indonesian Consumers Institute Foundation (YLKI) is critical for goods trade for the protection of consumer rights is also the problem. Thus tricking this work continuously, even in a world of enlightenment intelligence agents and large merapalkan jargon for the life of the nation. (*)

*), Diana A.V. Sasa, stay in Surabaya

No End controversy

Book dismantle the CIA Failure Espionage amateur Adidaya Country Team works Weiner is a polemic people. Riot appear related to the designation''involvement''former Vice President Adam Malik (deceased) as the agent Intelejen U.S. Central Agency (CIA) coup d'etat in the extermination of the PKI and Sukarno. This book triggered a controversy Tim Weiner analysis entitled''We only Menunggangi That wave to the Beach''in the pages 329-334.

During the 40 years the United States have sought to deny the states do not have any linkage with the slaughter of using the anti-communism movement in Indonesia. ''We did not create waves, the waves. We only menunggangi water to the beach,''said Marshall Green, U.S. ambassador to Indonesia during bloody coup d'etat 1965.

Team Weiner, reporter The New York Times, wrote: Adam Malik, after perseteruan involved in a permanent Sukarno, met with a CIA officer, Clyde McAvoy, in Jakarta in 1964. ''I recruit and control the Adam Malik. He was the highest official ever recruited,''said Clyde McAvoy Tim Weiner in the interview in 2005.

I hope the controversy does not culminate in the Weiner team of books by Attorney General. Because, this book, regardless of who caused all the polemic, indeed, otokritik a journalist who for two decades on the Zagat intelejen U.S.. Many crucial information that is more instructive than the past, Adam Malik.

Why the U.S. as a superpower countries have institutions such as spying that the quality of chicken, vegetables? Why the world like the U.S. police, agents of the secret-agent offices operate recklessly? This is the fundamental concern of this book. Weiner team to the conclusion that the history of the CIA operation intelejen that have been aged 60 years had memangsa nations the United States alone.

Team Weiner, the Pulitzer Prize, shows convincing evidence in regard to the CIA silliness. CIA one takes into account the strength of communism in the Cold War era and failed mengkalkulasi threat of terrorism. CIA agents know the Berlin Wall, the symbol totalitarianisme regime komuinis Eastern Europe, collapsed in 1989 from broadcast television, not from the supply analysis of detective work in the underground.

The main mission of the CIA during the Cold War the Soviet Union steal confidential way to recruit local telik password. However, the CIA did not have one detective who has a deep understanding of respecting work methods Kremlin. All volunteers who work at the CIA KGB, the Soviet espionage, died in Moscow executed turbulence counter-espionage Aldrich Ames - a senior CIA officer division of the Soviet Union that dozens of years working for the KGB.

CIA, in the era of President Ronald Reagents, running a mission kaprah in the third world. Selling weapons to the Garda Revolution of Iran to finance gerilyawan Counter-Sandinista Daniel Ortega made hamstring, Nicaragua rebel leader. CIA pierce Soviet weapons with funneling billions of dollars in Afghanistan. Do not realize that the Al-Qaeda fighter had soon become a boomerang for the U.S.. Operations of secret CIA generally is a blind stab-stab in the dark. CIA hide the failure in the various overseas with a lie in order to maintain reputation.

The failure of the CIA has been hand, to borrow the term President Eisenhower,''a legacy of the college (heritage debris-debris)''. Fall WTC, the cathedral capitalism membelasah on 11 September 2001 with the naked memeragakan to the world that CIA agents not ubahnya lame duck in the terrorist incursion CIA own upbringing. Robohnya duration of the first tower with a second 18 minutes. The CIA failed to prevent the tragedy twin towers. Around 3,000 U.S. citizens die incompetent in New York, Washington and Pennsylvania.

Book the failure of the CIA Tim Weiner is mixed with 50,000 records to learn the CIA, depth interviews with hundreds of CIA veterans, and the recognition of ten Directors. Herb explosive agents virtually disband the CIA office in the largest espionage Zagat highway that post-WTC Fall. This book is on the record. There are no anonymous sources, there is no quote without identity speaker, and would not gossip. This is the history of the CIA, which was compiled based on coverage in Afghanistan and the compilation of documents primary.

Served with a flowing style of personality, like author Tim Weiner triller, placing themselves as a single class storyteller. Frenzied three books this quarter with a cash book Spycatcher The work of Peter Wright, which is prohibited (mempermalukan) because the British empire around long lunge Sir Roger Hollis, Director General of the Office of secret MI5, the KGB double agent appeared.

This is the most visionary wisdom that can ditimba history of the CIA. Major issue in the world today is economic-based political greed and profits without limit that is too berkiblat to the U.S.. Uncle Sam's country, following long lunge intelejennya the body, can be the source of various wars, fundamentalism, extremism, terrorism and nan unremitting in the entire hemisphere. (*)

*) J. Sumardianta, high school sociology teacher colleges de Britto Jogjakarta

Book Title: dismantle the CIA Failure

Original title: The Legacy of college History of the CIA

Author: Tim Weiner

Publisher: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta

Mold: I, 2008

Jumat, 28 November 2008

Village-based governance

This article was published in the Daily Kompas, Central Java, December 30, 2006
By the facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro

Government official site in Sragen regency,, on 21 October 2006, revealed that for decentralization to the village in 2007, Sragen implement village-based government. There will be three civil servants in each village. Thus, for the 208 villages in Sragen, required 624 employees who are ready to be assigned in the village. Personnel civil servants (PNS) consists of one person agricultural extension and two programs that focus on the empowerment of rural communities.

Duty is a direct extension of farmers in the village to build the ecosystem, agriculture, animal husbandry, fishery and the ideal. Two other people have to really recognize the potential and conditions in their respective villages to be developed in accordance with the needs of the village.

To implement this program, the intranet network must have been to every village to report the flow control and can function well every day. Supported by at least two computer units in each village is expected that the village can actually known.

Village-based government is a trustee of Government Regulation No. 72 Year 2005 on the village. PP 72/2005 is born as a follow-up rising from the Law number 8 of 2005 on Changes to Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Government.

Although there are changes in laws, the substance of the village does not change.

Substance first, diversity. This is adapted to the origin of social and cultural conditions of the local community. This means that the pattern of governance and rural development must respect the value system that applies to the local community without forgetting the value of the system together in the life of nationalism and state.

Second, participation. Active participation of villagers is required in Providing governance and development process. Third, genuine autonomy. This means that the authority to set administration in managing the community and rights based on the origin and value of the local social culture.

Fourth, democratization. Governance and implementation of rural development must accommodate the aspirations of the community and favorable diartikulasi BPD through the village and social institutions as partners the village government.

Fifth, the empowerment of the community. Governance and implementation of rural development aimed to improve the welfare and prosperity of the people through policies and programs of activities in accordance with the priority needs of the community.

In a sociological perspective, the characteristics of the village is relatively simple. It is this simplicity that distinguishes the community with the city. The city has a community activity that is more complex.

Simplicity villagers to make them more active participation in government activities and development. Their participation in paying taxes and building earth (UN), mutual cooperation, and pilkades far higher than the city.

For that, government programs based on the village not to fall into the "kotanisasi" village. Villages with agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishery as a breath of life must be kept in its sustainability. In other words, "the village modernization yes, but not kotanisasi village!"


Ironically, many current land rice fields to the interests of the dialihfungsikan factories and housing. Instead the function of this land instead evoke the work of farmers into factory workers. The number of farmers are increasingly reduced. As a result, Runtuhlah superiority of the Indonesian nation exporter of rice into rice importer nation.

There are four kinds of approaches that need to be taken to implement the government based in the village. First, the approach is oriented in the resolution of the problem. Resolving the problem is the duty of the government's most often overlooked. The farmers are often left to solve their own problems.

Increase in fertilizer prices, scarcity of fertilizers, and the low selling price of unhulled rice is a classic problem faced by farmers. However, the government response was very slow.

In fact, I rarely even create government policies that harm farmers, for example, the rice import policy. Recognized or not, this policy is causing the selling price of unhulled rice to be low, only enough to recover the cost of production.

Second, the approach is oriented on the improvement of human resources villages. According to Rogers and Shoemaker, one of the obstacles in efforts to empower human resources is a village mentality Lack of thinking for the future. This means that the ability of farmers to have very limited future. This resulted in the farmers have difficulties to improve the welfare of their life. Empowerment programs of human resources need to be directed to the village "to re-install" this kind of mentality.

Third, the approach is oriented at strengthening the role of village economy. Mangku Purnomo (2004), said that the social and economic institutions can be a container village farmers to mengaspirasikan economic motives. Institutional this course will have meaning in the strategic empowerment of society.

Fourth, the approach is oriented on increasing the knowledge and skills of rural communities. In this case, the government can build a library and the village hall in the village of exercise work. Real synergy between the library and training center is expected to make the village "get information".

Fifth, the approach is oriented on improving the performance of government agencies. It is important to remember the current dependence of farmers against the government is still quite high. The performance of government institutions that will open opportunities for farmers to improve the welfare of their life.

Facts taken from this site Romi Febriyanto Saputro librarian at the Library Sragen regency, Central Java

Karimun Soon Have New Library Building

Utrecht - Regent H. Karimun Nasrun Basirun, S. Sos, M.Si. said that next year will be built Public Library building. This is a speech delivered at the opening ceremony Socialization Law No. 43 Year 2007 on Library hall at the Great Mosque Karimun (19/11).

Further, the district is still young and enegik elucidate on the importance of the quality of the library in order pencerdasan life of the nation as mandated in penbukaan Constitution 45. In a speech without a text that was to remind the speaker that society Karimun not easy to respond to the speaker and rarely want to ask the question and answer session.

Karimun is one district in Riau Islands Province, which was established by Law No. 53 of 1999. District bordering with Singapore is comprised of 245 islands with 3 large islands, namely Karimun island, gourd, and toothpick. Only 73 inhabited islands and the rest is not populated group of islands.

Socialization of the committee, said that the romance of this event attended by 167 participants, consisting of community leaders, and Camat lurahnya, principals and managers of the school library Elementary, Middle School, High School, the library manager, the management of mosques, and so forth. Similar activities will be implemented in the 2009 budget that will come. Meanwhile, the head of the Office of Library and Archive, Indra said that the participants who attended approximately 90% of the invited. Completing what was delivered by bupatinya, the former camat Indra said that the development office of Library and Archive, Karimun Regency planned in a strategic location and easy reach of the community. Indra also said that a head of the Office of Library had a career challenges in the very different time served as Camat. Library Karimun, which this year became the library's best level of Riau Islands Province (concern) this year has visited many mayarakat.

Socialization Law No. 43 Year 2007 on the Library to bring sources Nurhadi Imam, the head of the Media Law and National Library had received a response from all participants. It is possible the effects of philippic bupatinya less frequently respond to the speaker or for other activities, but that should be closed 11:00 hours until 11:30 was molor even during the lunch are still many who want to ask more. RRI to a local priest said that the socialization of Law No. 43 Year 2007 on Library does not just explain the legal aspects but also aspects of libraries because people are still many who have not yet know what the library.

Appreciation should be given to the Regent Karimun, which strongly supports the development and the development of libraries in the region. When socialization present more before the full participants, according to the new information came from a task office in Jakarta evening. The great number of participants present and active in the socialization can be used as evidence that the people of Karimun want to promote the library. Head of Library believe the future of the library is quite promising and will exert every effort for that. Indra expects assistance from the National Library in the form of Library Nowhere immediately slide terealisir to existing services.

No surprises in Aceh: Lessons from N. Ireland

David Rose , Jakarta

As someone who spent all of my childhood and most of my adult life living in Northern Ireland during the secessionist conflict that we call the "Troubles", the recently released International Crisis Group report -- Pre-Election Anxieties in Aceh -- was frankly, not surprising.

In fact, were the authors to go back to their report and replace "Aceh" with "Northern Ireland" it would accurately reflect the issues that undermined confidence in the period immediately after the signing of our peace accord in 1998. Yet ten years later the peace process goes on, our new democratic institutions whilst not yet permanent, feel secure and significantly progress is finally being made to confront the many social issues arising from the conflict. The key question is what lessons have been learnt?

Before discussing lessons learnt from the Northern Ireland peace process, I would like to make clear that this writer works on the principal of "Shared Experience." In workshops, I appraise the Northern Ireland experience as a means to illustrating the dynamics at play during our peace process.

Whilst I believe that common understanding exists amongst those who have experienced conflict, I do not believe it is possible for an outsider to direct parties to successful outcomes. Rather establishing common ground through the sharing of experiences allows peace builders an opportunity to explore another situation and adapt the lessons learnt to build a strategic approach appropriate to their circumstance. In this way, the parties to the 2005 Memorandum of Understanding may be able to adapt and devise strategies to overcome their own problems.

So what are those key lessons from Northern Ireland?

The first is to realize that the peace process never ends; it merely throws up new and different problems. When I look back on the period running up to the 1998 Belfast Agreement, I am embarrassed at my naivety. At that time I believed an accord would in itself be the solution to our situation. In truth, the day the deal was signed, a whole new set of challenges emerged:

o The political and militant opposition to the deal emerged and constantly sought to undermine it. I attended more funerals in the period after the accord than I did before. All were people killed through internal feuding.

o Many former militants had no work skills to make a living in the post-conflict economy. They turned to crime and as a result seriously undermined the population's sense of well being.

o The challenge of implementation of what was written in the deal became increasingly difficult as a serious lack of trust continued to exist between all parties.

o People's expectations of a quick turn around in their economic fortunes were soon proved to be unrealistically high and as a result they became increasingly disillusioned.

All these problems still exist to a greater or lesser extent, what we have learnt is that they are not reasons to bring the whole process to a halt.

The second is never lose faith in the process. Even in the euphoria of 1998, I never seriously believed that the militant groups would ever cease to exist in a paramilitary form.

A decade later, the two principal groups, the Provisional Irish Republican Army and the Ulster Volunteer Force have both voluntarily ceased to exist as "military" entities. This change happened because it became politically unsustainable for both groups to exist.

As the causes of conflict were addressed, the two organizations were faced with a choice -- continue and potentially mutate into mafia-type gangs or depart the stage on their own terms. Both chose the latter as it was the will of the majority of their members. It took over a decade from the ceasefires to reach this point and for most of that time many thought the ill-discipline and criminal activity of some former militants would destroy the whole process. In the end, staying the course delivered because it was the process that created the dynamic.

The third lesson is always being honest. Every conflict is a mass of human stories, each one as legitimate as the other. Peace builders must always seek to empathize with those who having survived years of conflict now have to overcome the challenges of peace, particularly:

o The traumatized victims,

o The families mourning the loss of loved ones,

o The newly unemployed combatants,

o The political and community leaders struggling to lead people through the most painful of transformations, and

o Those who feel they have lost.

All have legitimate issues to overcome and none should be dismissed. In truth, there are no ready answers to these issues. In Northern Ireland, we are coming to terms with the fact that whilst offer as much support as is possible, we cannot solve every problem for every person and this writer believes the best any society can do is admit that truth They won't love you for it, but people do respect honesty.

The fourth lesson is to recognize that "Peace" is an ill-defined situation that will never truly be reached. For a decade, I believed that Northern Ireland might eventually reach a point where all our problems were resolved and the peace process could be complete. Eventually, I realized that this would never happen because even the most successful societies have problems. And those of us who work to build "Peace" should remember that.

There will always be crime and criminals. There will always be political division, and there will always be economic winners and losers. A healthy society recognizes these truths and seeks to manage them through well-supported civil policing, robust democratic institutions, and adequate support for those at the bottom of the economic ladder. In Northern Ireland, we have made significant progress towards the healthy outcome and thus can claim to have reached a level of "Peace".

Though the parties to the 2005 MOU should recognize the need to find strategies to address the problems highlighted in the ICG report, no one should be surprised at how slow and difficult progress has been. As former prisoner and UVF leader Gusty Spence told the small group of prisoners who would go on to initiate the "Northern Ireland Peace Strategy" within the Loyalist constituency, a peace process is "a marathon not a sprint."

The writer is a professional consultant, trainer and advisor specializing conflict transformation, who has worked on National Democratic Institute programs across the world, most notably in West Bank/Gaza and Aceh.


Senin, 24 November 2008

Corruption the biggest threat to Indonesian development

Paul Wolfowitz, Jakarta

What the Asian crisis showed -- nowhere more clearly than in Indonesia -- is that corruption is often is at the very root of why governments don't work.

Today, one of the biggest threats to development in many countries -- including this one -- is corruption. It weakens the systems, it distorts the market, and it therefore encourages non-productive skills.

In the end, governments and citizens will pay a price, in lower incomes, lower investment, and more volatile economic swings.

This is a lesson that Indonesia learned the hard way. After the progress of the last 20 years, corruption contributed significantly to the economic collapse of the late 1990s. It now looms as a major obstacle to achieving the development successes this country is capable of -- and which the Indonesian people deserve.

Corruption not only undermines the ability of governments to function properly, it also stifles private sector growth.

We hear it from investors -- both domestic and foreign -- who worry that where corruption is rampant, contracts are unenforceable, competition is skewed and the cost of doing business is stifling. When investors see that, they take their money elsewhere.

To give an idea: In Indonesia, 56 percent of surveyed firms say they are willing to pay more taxes -- in fact half are willing to pay up to 5 percent of their revenues -- if corruption could be eliminated.

Corruption thrives in countries where private investors face cumbersome procedures and excessive regulations. When extra licenses are needed to start a business, when extra signatures are required to import goods, it creates opportunities for abuse of authority and for corruption.

Our estimates show that the time to start a business has already fallen from 151 days to below 80 days, and we are hopeful that the government will reach its target. That would be a wonderful success story.

Perhaps the most important challenge lies in the enforcement of contracts. On this front, Indonesia ranks amongst the lowest in the world -- 145 out of 155. In fact, investors' lack of trust in the legal system is one of the problems that have brought investment levels down to half of those in your fast-growing neighbors.

Indonesia has already begun to confront some of these difficult challenges. President Yudhoyono has launched a tough anti-corruption drive that is holding public officials accountable across all levels of government.

New institutions like the Anti-Corruption Commission, the Anti-Corruption Court, the Judicial Commission and Timtastipikor are up and running and producing results. And institutions like the Supreme Audit Commission and the Attorney General's Office are showing newfound strength.

Even more important are the measures taken to reduce opportunities and incentives for corruption, led by an impressive economic team.

Weknow that when governments don't work, the development assistance we provide to governments doesn't work either. It means that children are denied the education they need. Mothers are denied the health care they deserve and countries are denied the institutions needed to deliver real results.

Fighting corruption is a long-term commitment. We cannot expect results overnight.

What we can expect is steady progress towards building transparent and accountable institutions. That is why fighting corruption requires a long-term strategy that systematically and progressively attacks the problem. And that is why any strategy for solving a problem requires the commitment and participation of governments, citizens and the private sector.

There's been a lot of attention recently to a number of actions we've taken to suspend lending in existing projects where corruption concerns have emerged.

The World Bank Group's country strategy for Indonesia is one that particularly emphasizes governance. In partnership with the Indonesian government, we will commit $900 million per year to strengthening governance, with the goal of improving service delivery in education, health and other essential services and enhancing the investment climate.

In countries like Indonesia where the government is committed to fighting corruption, our resources anbd expertise can make a difference.

Enforcement alone will not cure corruption. How much we do, and how much progress we make, depends on the desire of both governments and civil society to create the right setting for sound, strong, sustainable development.

The greatest changes come when the ideas people carry in their heads change. In many countries, people are not as tolerant of corruption as they were in the past.

The good news is that in Indonesia, the social and economic achievements of the last forty years have created a demand for government that works. The people of Indonesia recognize that with transparent and accountable governance, they stand a better chance of reducing corruption...of improving their quality of life...and securing a better future for their children.

The article is condensed from an address made by the World Bank President at a discussion on democracy, governance and development held Tuesday night in conjunction with Tempo media group's 35th anniversary.

Laws against torture needed

Ricky Gunawan , Jakarta

On Jan. 22, 2007, Hartoyo was at home with his partner, Bobby (not his real name), when two men forcibly entered his house and proceeded to vandalize his property before assaulting the two men. Hartoyo and Bobby were then dragged outside to a place where a crowd of around 15 people had gathered. They were subjected to beatings and verbal abuse. Hartoyo was ordered by the attackers to immediately vacate the boarding house. The attackers then informed the local police authorities.

The two victims were taken by four police officers to the Banda Raya Police Station where they were made to strip down to their underwear and were viciously beaten and verbally abused by the officers. The police officers later sexually abused Hartoyo and then forced his partner to perform oral sex on him. The two were then dragged to the police station courtyard where officers sprayed them with ice-cold water.

The police also forced Bobby to urinate on Hartoyo's head. Hartoyo and his partner were then taken to a police lockup, where they were held until morning.

This ruthless, inhuman and barbaric torture has been a cavernous trauma for Hartoyo. Furthermore, this abysmal event scars Indonesia's face of humanity.

More than a year later, in October 2008, the case was finally tried by the Banda Aceh District Court. However, as the court regarded the torture merely as a minor offense, there was only one judge hearing the case.

During the trial, the judge did not examine the acts of torture but rather focused on Hartoyo's sexual orientation. The judge advised him to turn away from sin, giving the impression that it was permissible for the perpetrators to beat and assault the victims because of their different sexual orientation.

In about 30 minutes, the judge had made his decision: The four perpetrators were sentenced to three months' imprisonment with six months of probation and a fine of Rp 1,000.

Given that the case was tried as a minor offense, the verdict was final and binding -- leaving no hope for the victim to appeal.

Hartoyo's case is only one example of how the Indonesian legal apparatus treats this kind of torture. The court obviously treats the "common enemies of all mankind and all nations" nicely and inadequately by ruling they only committed a minor offense.

From this case, we can also draw the conclusion that torture creates double standards within the state institutions, especially the police and judiciary. How is it possible that such severe violence took place in this very modern day and the perpetrators received a very light punishment?

This case demonstrates how the absence of laws on torture resulted in no justice for the victims of torture. The absence of laws on torture denies victims and their families any avenue for justice and redress. The right to redress and compensation for grievances wreaked by the State is a fundamental principle of the Convention against Torture, to which Indonesia is a party. Indonesia, which does not provide a legal remedy for such unspeakable acts, is also violating its international obligation imposed under the Convention.

Reports from many national and international human rights groups show there have never been investigations into cases of torture and other ill-treatment, and where victims have been reluctant to submit a complaint to the relevant authorities. Even if the perpetrators were convicted, they were not convicted under the laws on torture. Definitely, there is a problem in dealing with torture in Indonesia.

The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture has recommended that for a country such as Indonesia, there is a crucial need for an independent national authority, such as a national commission or ombudsman with investigatory and/or prosecutorial powers, which should be immediately established to receive and to investigate complaints on torture cases.

Complaints about torture should be dealt with without further delay and should also be investigated by an independent authority with no connection to that which is investigating or prosecuting the case against the alleged victim. Wherever a person has a plausible complaint of having been tortured by the police or military officers, it too entails the notion of an effective remedy.

Without establishing a proper, impartial and effective accountability mechanism to investigate torture cases as well as enacting domestic laws on torture, there will be more cases like Hartoyo's in the near future. Indonesia's tortured commitment, apparently, is dragging the country into a tortured nation.

The writer is the Program Director of the Community Legal Aid Institute. He can be reached at


Can 38 parties create an effective governance?

Boni Hargens , Jakarta

Why does the government tend to be ineffective in implementing public policy? That is the question of De Figueiredo, Jr in his 2002 paper titled, "Electoral Competition, Political Uncertainty, and Policy Insulation". He argues that political uncertainty is the root of evil. Uncertainty denotes a complex political process that ends in a deadlock.

For Figueiredo, uncertainty is not a taken-for-granted state but implicated by complex electoral competition among different political forces.

If the above question is converted into how to implement an effective policy, we then automatically will discuss the quality of government as the output of electoral competition. To come straight to the point, the true question is whether or not a 38-party electoral competition in the upcoming 2009 elections can create an effective government.

A set of coalition strategies built by political parties is a beginning. But there are no strong variables that will guarantee that such a maximum coalition can build an effective presidential government because the boundaries are blurred and this is simply a "wild political maneuver" among political parties.

This happens for various reasons, such as (a) an ideologically dissimilar coalition or dissimilar political targets, (b) an over-exploitation of the figurative or popularity aspect when recruiting candidates for leaders and (c) a tendency to sweep the quality of leadership out of the electoral realm.

To some extent, polls published by independent researchers in term of leadership quality are jailed by particular disputes around who is the most popular to be a president. Popularity stands is not a significant correlation with quality. Some may be highly popular and qualified at the same time, but popularity per se does not imply leadership quality.

Talking about change then, is to talk about the quality of leadership. If we examine all current surveys in depth, we can see there is no specific survey that addresses public perception of the degree of leadership among every presidential candidate who has appeared on the surface.

Behind this dynamic game, we can synthesize that democracy is being insulated by pragmatic forces. On the one hand, to a certain point a political party is unable to self-reform and on the other hand, civil forces are giving less and less concern to this banal political process. Hence is it contingent to expect 2009 elections that are valuable?

Substantially, the 2009 elections will be very valuable and will become a critical turning point in this country's democratic history if the process is the priority, not the results per se or the contests in themselves -- at least this can be the idea for a political party in understanding coalition. One nodal point stressed along this line is that the elections will transcend to struggles for upgrading the quality of democracy.

Barack Obama in the United States ran ahead of John S. McCain in the polls when Obama mapped a feasible change agenda -- not being stuck in past romanticism as McCain was with his heroic moments in the Vietnam War.

The same fate will befall the big established parties in our country in the context that no parties will be accepted among the population if they only stand on a historical foundation. The horizon must include performances on how and what parties will do and should do for the greatest number of people. The main intention is what parties will do to combat political uncertainty.

In specifics, the intentions of politics are to fight for the survival of its citizens, to defend the poor's right-to-live, to set the oppressed free and to let the uneducated dream of schooling -- not only because education is an instrument for vertical social mobilization but also as education is a right of the citizens.

In terms of talking about rights, the Liberals and the Republicans have disputed this for years. For Liberals, the foundation of a state's existence is to fulfill individual interests for each of its citizens, but the Republicans are convinced that the state must act in its own interests, not only as a tool for fulfilling individual needs. Habermas effects to end such creative tension through what he calls "deliberative democracy". The core principle is how to maximize popular participation in the political process.

This precisely is our fundamental issue -- how to maximize popular participation in the state when democracy is being insulated by pragmatic forces. Political parties as formal power-seeking organizations and as a bridge between society and the political system have been put into question -- reflect on the increase of non-voters during recent local elections -- for their oligarchical domination and absolute pragmatism where their quality is subordinated to money. It is predicted that the 2009 elections will be hung up by such pragmatical forces.

The question then is how to set our democratic imagination free from the tunnel's darkness? The change -- which will be the nodal point of our expected struggle in the upcoming 2009 elections -- will have to meet some of the following conditions: (a) politics will be led by a new progressive and mainstream politic (new political party?) that enters the political realm with a feasible and transformative agenda of change, (b) the party sells its agenda or program at the grassroots level and no longer exists because of its popularity and (c) finally voters have sufficient information and knowledge about the candidates or contestant parties so that people can come to the ballot with a good conscience and genuine good will.

The writer is a lecturer at Political Science Department, University of Indonesia and Director of Merdeka Center for Strategic Study. He can be reached at