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Kamis, 12 Februari 2009

Prevent Drugs With Reading

By: Romi Febriyanto Saputro * 

A. Learning From History
History has proven that drugs can reincarnate into "mass destructive weapons." A nation's civilization can be destroyed with poison the young generation with the drugs. History of opium war in China to prove that the strength of a nation can be devised with ditaklukkan drugs. British troops kolonialis successfully conquer China after the country is able to make Chinese opium addiction.
Since the beginning of the century to -19, the traders in the UK illicit opium trade to China and get a big hit. Cinalah who bear the consequences arising from the bad this trade. Therefore, the Chinese anti-opium movement do.
Encyclopedia Nasional Indonesia (1997) mentioned in the year 1837, making China the incentive anticandu propaganda and tighten control of trade with the close supervision of the port, an important port for Chinese traders English. In addition, China also apply the death penalty for opium users, including the scholars and the military.
English feel wronged and want to force China to open pelabuhannya for English traders. Tension, and after going over the killing of villagers by British people who are drunk, meletuslah war. China demanded that those guilty are handed to them, but with characteristic British kolonialnya decline.
As a result, the Emperor decided to destroy all the opium warehouse and its contents belong to the UK in Cantonese. On March 1839, terjadilan events beribu burning thousands of chest-owned British opium in Cantonese.
In the UK is also declaring war against China. Some of the coastal city of China attacked and seized by the British. After the war lasted for three years, England have victory and forcing a successful agreement with China. This Agreement is known as the Nanking Agreement signed on 29 August 1842.
In this agreement, among others, set: China must open the port Cantonese, Amoy, Foochow, Ninghsien, and Shanghai to British traders; European people in China get privileges; Hong Kong to the UK; the determination of import duties by the UK government, and China should pay war damages to the UK. Nanking this Agreement trigger kolonialis countries such as France, Germany, and Russia also demanded privileges.
War between China and the UK erupt again in 1856, when the English would wreak with lust kolonialismenya expand trade network in China. France and help the UK respond to demand top terbunuhnya French missionaries in the Chinese hinterland. China again suffering defeat in the war and forced to sign this agreement Tientsien the year 1858.
This Agreement is self-mocking Chinese because English forces melegalkan opium trade. Activists also broke out again until the year 1860. British allied with the French successful jockey howl and ransack property palace. China back howl forced to sign the Convention, which asserts that China is ready to receive the provisions in the Agreement Tientsien the melegalkan Drug trafficking. Of China was subdued in the hands of terrorism drugs that happy smile.
B. Of terrorism
Malik bin Nabi, an intellectual home in the Al Jazair write a book titled Syuruut Al-Nahdhah, wake up and that a failure of civilization depends on who is to be a "panglimanya". He said that a civilization will continue to climb, when the rise to "panglimanya" is the ruh. Ruh With a civilization that civilization will be clean and not terkotori. At the time this will be considered to reach the actual summit.
In the second phase, civilization will have a broadening of the expansion and development is not, when you become a player in the civilization that is preposterous. Of the intellect will be interesting to pull a fast way between the ruh and the chaste. The occurrence of pull interesting result of this will continue to stretch and not to increase value.
In the next phase, a destruction of civilization will experience when the bankruptcy and to "panglimanya" is carnality. At this point the slide will be swift to point the bottom
Malik Bin Nabi expression gives a lesson to us, that human civilization will always be an ebb and flow. When the ruh spiritualisme and morality became the commander of a civilization will be able to reach the peak of civilization. However, when reason and chaste morality has been overcome, then the rocket will fall to zero point.
Chinese civilization is known as the oldest civilization in the history of the world by terrorism feudatory drugs. This is because of this failure to respond to challenges and threats that are evolving. Emperor of China never imagine that opium will be the ringleader of China from the destruction of sovereign nations into a colonial nation.
This is consistent with the A Arnold Toynbee in A Study of History that says, that a bankruptcy is caused by the inability of actors to respond to the challenges that are evolving.
When a nation can not afford to give more answers to the challenges of developing and drowned in kejumudan, it can be ascertained that the decomposition will be. The failure of response to the challenge this indicates impotensi in civilization is.

History will continue to be repeated. The drug at the beginning of the century to -19 has been successfully destroyed the Chinese civilization, is now in the new millennium bereinkarnasi three drugs have become a potential terrorism that destroyed the civilization of mankind.
Drugs together with the advanced technology has modified itself into serious threat to all the nations. In 2005, the UN said that the data habitue drug addict in the world reached 200 million people.
In the land of water, BNN survey in 2006 showed prevalence of drug abuse during life of 8.3%. The higher the education level the higher prevalence figures. Prevalence of drugs in the secondary at 6%, increased to 9% in high school, and 12% in universities. They are a private school in the senior secondary level (10%) and universities (12%) higher prevalence than public schools and religion.
Survey results also show the increasing trend of drug abuse had a number of use of 5.8% in 2003 to be 8.3% in 2006. This indicates that the drug circulation becomes increasingly widespread, visible throughout the province have found a number drug abuse and almost no much difference between the percentage figures in the abuse of the city and district.
More than half of trespasser drugs are on the age group 15-19 years (58%), especially those who sit on benches in the senior secondary school (94%). This may be because dimaklumi in senior secondary school age are in this age range. There are differences between age groups with a trespasser in the city district. In the age group of less than 15 years trespasser more are in the district, while in the age group above 20 years more in the city.
Data above statistics confirm the existence of drugs as the number one terrorist in the world. Why? Because abuse of drugs will trigger a crisis in many areas of life. Drugs produce a domino effect extraordinary.
First, mendegradasikan moral community. BNN research in 2006 said that theft, fraud, spoliation, and hold a follow-crime carried out by the many drugs trespasser. Percentage who had stolen the family owned about 16% in the regular-use group and 24% in the habitue, who had stolen goods belonging to other people is 5% in the group of regular use and 13% in the habitue. While that never deceive, to seize, hold, or about 4% in the regular-use group and 9% in the habitue.
Second, the economic system. Habitue drugs will tend to spend income to buy drugs. Economic losses and social drug abuse in Indonesia in 2004 is estimated Rp.23, 6 trillion, and the number of trespasser drugs estimated 2.9 million to 3.6 million people, equivalent to 1.5% of the population of Indonesia (BNN & Puslitkes UI, 2005).
Third, cause physical and spiritual health. According to Dadang Hawari (Republika, July 2003), people who have been depending on drugs, the life experience of the soul so that the interference is no longer able to function as normal in society. Dadang Hawari research results show that 53.5% experienced heroin users aberration tuberculosis, 55.1% experienced liver function difference, 56.6% have hepatitis C infection, and 33.3% experienced virus infections of HIV / AIDS.
In addition, the RI Department of Health data, during the period of 1987 s / d in 2006 of AIDS cases due to the use of syringe drug penetrate from the 4122 figure (8,194 cases) far above the other factors triggered AIDS. Such as blood transfusion, gay, and perinatal transmission.
C. Character Education
According to Jalal Amin (2006), globalization is the rapid contraction in the distance between the human community, whether related to the transfer of commodities, people, capital, information, ideas or values. This means that globalization is a process of elimination territorial boundaries between one nation with other nations. This process of elimination continues until a step ranah cultural nation.
Ironically, the younger generation we accept globalization without a filter. Pengagungan over the dose of globalization has caused people to lose our roots and cultural history. Foreign culture with all its forms has memarginalisasi national culture and local culture. Three foreign domination product F, food (food), fashion (clothing), and fun (entertainment) in daily life so obvious.
The above phenomena indicate that our youth are very vulnerable to the influence of foreign culture. All things foreign are considered "good and modern." This resulted in the young generation like us to try-try something that is considered representative of modern life.
In the perception of young people, drugs is something that is quite challenging to try. Originally just try, to feel the effects after the grace They hooked. Once hooked they will do anything to get the goods is prohibited. Defense of the future generation is also eventually collapse.
BNN survey in 2005 found that the average age of first drug use around 18-19 years with a range of 10 to 32 years. The reason for using the drug the first time raised a lot of abuse in the household is fun (56%) and because of duress (22%). Whereas in order to abuse drugs in the house kos, the reason for using the drug the first time that many would like to try is raised (62%) and the solicitation / blandishment ternan (18%).
Ironically, most of the respondents in the household and in the house kos pemah with drugs, but who knows what the danger of drugs and drug-only 65% of households and 85% at home. That is, they become the drugs was not caused factors ignorance but exactly because they know that they have on. Know the dangers of drugs but the drugs would still like to try to prove that there was something wrong with our education system.
Education has failed to build national character of our youth. Education produces graduates who simply memorize knowledge not understand, menghayati, and a confident knowledge. As a result, our young generation terbius easy charm by pop culture
Piliang Yasraf According to Amir (2003), in the context of pop culture phenomenon with korelasinya and lifestyle, and how it was built entirely by industrialization and capitalism that makes the current media as the "propaganda" this is it, pop culture is often suspected as a strength that hegemonik fascist, identity and imagination when someone is determined from the top. Clearly, all these have impact on the way to view reality.
Pop culture brings us to the reality that all the surface. Reality that is only just outside the skin, a false reality, a simulakra. Pop culture is capitalism children uterus because it can not be released from industrialization. Recognized or not, pop culture participate in the share distribution of drug abuse. Unconsciously, pop culture has taken the role as a catalyst be adolescent drug abuse.
Sinetron film or glass picisan Is wide and often promote the lifestyle of young people as popular dugem, girls over-dose, oiled-up techniques mabukan even inject drugs. Ironically, that sinetron is that our young people avoid drugs even unwittingly changed to promote the use of drugs.
To fight against drugs, education must prepare a draft national education berkarakter strong. During this learning methodology is only focused on the approach to the left brain / cognitive, that is only require students to learn and memorize the concept of truth and without touching the feelings, emotions, and nuraninya. In addition, there was no practical implementation of the behavior and values of goodness and noble character in the life of the school. This is an error metodologis the fundamental moral teaching in the human.
Because it is not strange if found numerous inconsistencies between what is taught in schools and what is applied to children outside the school. Thus the role of parents in religious education for children formed the characters (read: character) to be very absolute, because the parents also have children's sustainability values of goodness that he was aware at the school.
Without the involvement of parents and the family then any values that are taught in schools will be futile, because character education (or morals in Islam) must contain elements afeksi, feeling, touch world, and practice together in the form of the practice of daily life .
Character education has the meaning of higher education's moral, not just because it teaches the truth, and one which, more than that character education inculcate habits (habituation) of the good things so that students understand a (cognitive aspect) about where the good and one, able to feel (afektif aspects of) the value of the good and want to do it (aspects psikomotorik).
In character education Lickona (1992) emphasize pentingya three components of good character (components of good character) that is moral or knowing about moral knowledge, moral feeling or sense of morality and moral action or moral act. This is necessary so that students are able to understand, feel and do as well as good values.
Foerster describes four basic characteristics that character education is quite important to inject the spirit of anti-drugs in the hearts of students, first, the interior regularity measure each action based hierarchy of values into action every normative guidelines. Students understand the hierarchy of values with good will not be easily tempted by the drug court has a variety of standard values to prevent. Religious norms, community, family, and the country is "immunization soul" to reject drugs.
Second, the coherence that gives someone the courage to make firm on principle, does not vacillate in the new situation, or fear of risk. Hold the principles of truth, courage is required competencies acquired by students. If the school is able to embed with the good nature of this, the outside of the school students will also have the courage to say, "No" on the invitation to friend using drugs interact.
Third, autonomy. Menginternalisasikan someone from outside the rules until a value for time. This can be seen through a personal assessment on the decision without pressure affected the other party. Sovereignty of the soul of students need to be built by educators, they are not easily affected by gentle persuasion-drug demons that continue bergentayangan.
Fourth, dependability and loyalty. Persistence is endurance someone want to be D. Interest Read
Character education can only be implemented if the schools in the ground water can stimulate the growth of interest in the students read. An interest in research to prove that someone reading will affect the character.
Magazine Child Development (January / February 2006) as cited H. Witdarmono (Kompas, 8 September 2006) published the results of research on the relationship between reading ability and aggressive attitude of the elementary school students. Miles Stipek research and find the relation between the level of reading ability and level agresivitas. In this study, aggressive behavior is limited in the four groups, "slasher", "not sabaran", "the love", and "custom pressing other children (bullying)."
Children grade 1 primary school, the reading ability is relatively low, while in grade 3, tend to have high levels agresivitas. Also, children, class 3, which has the ability to read low, tend to have highly aggressive attitude while in class 5. Perhaps, at the same level of association with them, children of low reading ability that is more frustrasinya accumulate. This makes them become aggressive. Conversely, there is relevance between social attitudes and the ability to read. The social attitude is "helpful", "understand the feelings of others," "have empathy," "no attention to the difficult," and "helpful / entertaining friends disappointed." Children's social attitudes that have a good time in kindergarten and grade 1 primary school are more able to develop the ability to read at grade 3 and grade 5 elementary school.
Research proves that the students who have a high interest in reading will tend to have a strong character. This is because reading is a complex process. Not only the process of reading is complex, but every aspect of the process of reading is also working with the very complex.
There are eight aspects of the work when we read, the aspects of sensori, perception, sekuensial (order of administration), experience, thinking, learning, association, and afeksi. Dikata may, during the progress, all aspects of psychiatric work on. The younger generation that this is a strong berkarakter will soon blossom into the next generation anti-drugs. Generation that has a high immunity to the drugs.
Ironically, most of our young generation is the generation of poor interest in reading. Dilansir data that describes the BPS in 2003, the Indonesian age of 15 years in the newspaper only to read 55.11%. Read the magazines or tabloids 29.22%, 44.28% story books, books and other knowledge of 21.07%. From 1993, a tendency to get information through reading only increased about 0.2%, far if dikomparasikan with watching television kenaikannya reached 21.1%.
BPS data show in 2006, the population of a reading as a source of new information about 23.5%. While watching the television 85.9%, and 40.3% listening to the radio. No reports of the World Bank. 16369-IND (in English Education from Crisis to Recovery), Vincent Greannary cite the results in 1998, said that the age-level reading class VI of primary school in Indonesia is only capable of reaching the 51.7 score in the bottom of the Philippines (52.6); Thailand (65 , 1) and Singapore (74.0).
The above facts make our hearts truly worry. In fact, the national education system has failed to bear the next generation to read. Education we just produce the next generation to read so-called "have learned". Generation who read only to reach out stark. Not the generation that continue to read throughout his life. Generation of this kind is potentially a lost generation that embrace the tsunami in drugs.
One method of learning that support the increased interest in reading for students is a method of learning konstruktivisme. According to E. Mulyasa (2002), focus on the approach konstruktivisme not rationality, but on understanding. This is the main reason why konstruktivisme can quickly replace the theory of cognitive development as a basis in research and practice in education. The attractiveness of this model is konstruktivisme on kesederhanaannya
Basic strategy of the model konstruktivisme learning is meaningful learning, which invites students to think and understand the subject material, not just hear, receive, and keep in mind. Each element of learning materials must be processed and interpreted in such a way so that makes sense. Something that does not make sense will not stick long in the mind.
Subjects related to the formation of character of students, such as: religious studies, moral character and moral rightly adopt this model of learning. So that learners can understand, menghayati, and practice religious and moral principle well. During this time, religious lessons in schools to reach a new milestone "penghapalan religion," moral lessons to a new stage "penghapalan moral" lessons and moral character was indeed reached a new stage "penghapalan moral character."
This strategy seeks good students and teachers have to learn the position as subject. As the subject of active learning both claimed to find data, information, and interpretation of the lesson material. Students are required to be kritisisme of the lesson material is not just mimic, copy, paste, and the sap is given by the teacher. With this strategy students and teachers are encouraged to have interest in reading high enough to utilize the school library.
Results obtained with this strategy meaningful learning will be far better than traditional learning by Paulo Freire learning system called the bank. Learn how the bank system will not encourage students to love reading. Next philosopher Paulo Freire encourage that learning should be raised nalar students with creativity and motivate students to learn how to explore data, analyze the data in the actual meaning.
Learn how the bank system will only generate the lesson material that is not comprehensive and IM. Sometimes there are some elements of learning material that is difficult to understand by students, but students are forced to accept such a grind. Model acceptance of the material so that lessons will only produce a poor practice in daily life. As a result learning take place in a static atmosphere, monoton and boring.
Learning strategy is very meaningful learning requires the support the library as a source of learning. Library can be used by students and teachers as a place of learning outside the classroom. Needs students to make active playing (active learning), interpretation (interpretation), make sense (make sense), Negotiation (bull), Cooperative (cooperation), and inquiry (menyelediki) can be done in the school library.
In the library students can also implement the concept of learning to know (learning to know), make learning (learning to do), learn to live in togetherness (learning to live together), a self-learning (learning to be); and learning for life (life long learning).
E. Conclusion
The war against drugs is done without strengthening the nation's character is mubadzir. Why? Because the most powerful defense against the temptations of drugs have themselves individuals themselves. Drugs will not be powerless if dealing with the generation of the nation berkarakter strong. Strength of character will continue to grow and develop in accordance with the increased interest in reading.
BNN can use the school library and public library to inject the spirit of anti-drug. Books, VCD, magazines and brochures about the anti-drug campaign can dilayankan in the library. In fact, if possible BNN can invite National Library of Indonesia to create a shared network, the network with the anti-drugs. This will involve the whole library is in the ground water.
Thus, the synergy between character education and reading interests will bear the future generations who know, understand, menghayati, and believes that drugs are poisons that must be dijauhi, dimusuhi, been, and the doghouse. This is the generation that will produce state officials, law enforcement, educators, and the state apparatus to be hard drugs. A nation that is able to transform knowledge into action and real morality, "War Against Drugs, and Win!".
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Mulyasa, E. 2003. Competency-Based Curriculum: Concept, Characteristics, and Implementation, Bandung: Remaja Rosda paper.
Collection of R & D BNN Year Results 2003 - 2006. Jakarta: BNN, 2006.
Martianto, Dwi Astuti. 2002. Character Education In The New Paradigm Human Qualified. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor.
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Witdarmono, H. Read and Agresivitas. Kompas, 8 September 2006
seen what is good, while the fidelity is the basis for the top honor a commitment that is selected. Persistence and commitment to moral values is the main character of education. Thus the gulf between ideals and moral application in daily life can continue dipersempit. Maturity of the four characters is possible through a stage of human individuality toward personalitas.